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Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

The upper secondary educational offers to all graduates of second phase of the lower secondary level of high school or arts and trades school the possibility to specialise in various theoretical, vocational and specific (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical) domains in order to prepare for the labour market and/or to continue their education in the subsequent education levels. The graduates of Arts and Trades Schools, in order to participate in upper secondary education (upper cycle of Liceu) have to attend the completion year and obtain the level 2 of certification of vocational skills.

Regarding the specialisation of studies, the structure of the upper secondary education is:

  • the upper cycle of liceu (high school) with three paths – general, technological and aptitude-based (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical) – further divided into educational profiles and specializations; it includes grades 11 and 12, for pupils aged 16 - 18 who completed the lower cycle of high school;
  • the additional year is organised based on the vocational qualifications that are provided, only for pupils who completed lower secondary education at a school of arts and trades and want to continue their education in the upper cycle of high school and/or to obtain a Level 2 Certificate of Vocational Qualification. (This is being in liquidation from the 2009/2010 school year).

In accordance with the general finalities of education, the following general objectives are set for the upper cycle of Liceu:

  • To develop the capacity, to formulate and solve problems based on relating knowledge from different domains;
  • To valorise one own experiences in order to achieve an optimal vocational guidance towards the labour market and/or post-secondary education (non-tertiary or tertiary);
  • To develop the capacity to actively integrate in various social-cultural groups: family, vocational environment, friends, etc.;
  • To develop essential functional competences for social success: communication, critical thinking, decision-making, processing and contextual use of complex information;
  • To cultivate the expressivity and sensitivity in order to obtain personal fulfilment and to promote a quality life;
  • To develop the moral autonomy.

The syllabi for each subject and educational route, profile and specialisation specify, depending on the  branch of study, profile and specialisation/ vocational qualification, the general competences, values and attitudes to be acquired during upper secondary education as well as the specific competences which will be acquired during each school year.

Types of Institution

Secondary education in Romania is organised and functions in several types of educational institutions:

  • Liceu (High school) (grades IX to XII/XIII) organised by cycles (lower and upper cycles) and branches of study: general, TVET and specific education and training (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical). Part of the theoretical and most of the sports, arts and pedagogical high schools are organised together with gimnaziu and primary education;
  • Cluster schools concentrating TVET high schools, VET schools and the completion year in some cases, post-secondary non-tertiary education institutions – all of them of the same or similar profiles. Cluster schools are organised and function as single educational institutions (with a single management and a single budget, etc.).

Geographical Accessibility

The majority of the high schools and cluster schools are located in the urban areas, close to enterprises – except for a small number of TVET high schools and cluster schools that function in rural areas, with classes mostly in the educational profile natural resources exploitation and protection of the environment. Some of the TVET high schools and cluster schools, as well as part of the theoretical and specific education and training high schools are organised as boarding schools – providing meals and accommodation for the pupils.

In order to improve access to education for everyone, the Education Law  stipulates that pupils benefit throughout the entire year of 50% reduction of the cost for internal public transportation (except air-travel). Due to this facility and depending on the concrete local conditions (distance, existing means of transportation, daily timetable, etc.) in a rather important number of cases pupils choose daily commuting between school and their homes instead of boarding.

Admission Requirements and Choice of School

The enrolment quotas for all education levels in public education are established yearly through Government Decision, based on the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports proposition. According to the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently modified and completed), the Ministry’s proposition is preceded by a multi-step fundamentation-consultation-projection process involving: local public authorities, County School Inspectorates, the Local Development Committees for Social Partnership in VET, teachers’ unions, and other players. In each county the exact allocation of placements in public schools is established through Ministerial Order, according to the provisions of the Government Decision which reflects the conclusions of the consultation process.

The admission requirements are established by education level as follows:

  • In Completion year (grade XI) are admitted graduates of Scoala de arte si meserii  (Arts and trades school), holding a level 1 qualification certificate;
  • In Liceu – upper cycle of high school  (grades XI to XII/XIII) are admitted only graduates of Liceu – lower cycle of high school, respectively graduates of the Arts and Trades School, holding a level 2 qualification certificate, based on a selection and repartition procedure established by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports.

Transition to liceu - upper cycle (grades XI to XII/XIII) depends on the educational route graduated and on the competences acquired during compulsory education. Access of the graduates of liceu - lower cycle to the different branches of study, profiles and specialisations provided within liceu - upper cycle is based on a methodology elaborated by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports.

Graduates of scoala de arte si meserii (Arts and Trades School) holding a level 1 vocational qualification certificate have to attain the Completion year in order to obtain a higher vocational qualification and to continue their studies in liceu - upper cycle. The Completion year ensures both further development of the vocational competences and completion of the general competences up to the curricular standards established for the high school lower cycle.

Age Levels and Grouping of Pupils

During upper secondary education a different teacher teaches each subject of the curriculum. According to the principle of continuity, usually the same teacher works with a given class throughout all the grades during which the respective subject is studied within a given education level. Class composition is established by the school’s administration council according to the following general criteria: during scoala de arte si meserii (Arts and trades school), in the lower and upper cycle of Liceu the Completion year and post-secondary non-tertiary education, the class composition depends on the branches of study, educational profile and specialisation, and furthermore on the foreign languages studied.

The classes are in general homogenous regarding the age of the pupils. The grades structure in upper secondary education and the indicative age levels are as follows (day classes):

  • The Completion year is organised for pupils aged 16 - 17 and includes grade  XI;
  • Liceu – upper cycle is organised for pupils aged 16 - 18 and includes grades XI to XII.

The number of pupils per class depends on the education level and is established by the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently modified and completed): Liceu – upper cycle – in average 25 pupils per class, but no less than 15 and no more than 30.

The Ministry of Education, Research,Youth and Sports can approve classes below the minimum or over the maximum number of pupils per class – according to the specific conditions (isolated areas, classes with tuition in the languages of the national minorities, etc.). Within pre-university education pupils can transfer between different schools and educational profiles, routes etc. according to the specific rules established by the Regulation for Organisation and Functioning of Pre-University Education Institutions (Ministerial Order 4925/2005). Pupils with exceptional aptitudes and performances can pass 2 grades in one school year, according to a procedure approved by an Order of the Minister.

Certain subjects can be taught in smaller groups (usually no less than 10 pupils): foreign languages (intensive study and bilingual classes), ICT practical activities (mathematics-informatics with informatics intensive study), arts and sports (specific educational routes), optional subjects (part of the school-based curriculum), practical training (certain specialisations in T/VET), etc.

Organisation of School Year

Organisation of the school year for upper secondary education is decided yearly by the Ministry of Education, Research,Youth and Sports. The structure of the school year takes several aspects into consideration: a balanced distribution of the school-days and holidays, the specificity of the climate in Romania and the respect for the religious beliefs of the population. The National Curriculum is established by the Ministry of Education, Research,Youth and Sports and specifies for each pre-university education level and grade: the total minimum and maximum number of classes per week; the minimum and maximum number of classes per week for each subject within the common core curriculum; the minimum and maximum number of classes per week dedicated to optional subjects/activities. Within the framework set by the structure of the school year and the National Curriculum, each pre-university education institution has the full responsibility to establish the weekly and daily timetables for each grade. The school year in Romania for upper secondary education comprises two semesters, three holidays during the school year and a summer holiday. The exact calendar of the school year is established each year through Order of the Minister of Education.According to the Ministerial Order and as provided by the in-force legislation, schools can request County School Inspectorates amendments of the school year calendar due to objective reasons: special weather conditions, specificity of the area (agricultural activities), natural calamities, schools with the majority of the pupils of other beliefs than the Orthodox one, etc. The County School Inspectorates can approve such requests subject to the condition that all pupils attend the total number of school-weeks and corresponding school-days as established by the Ministerial Order.

Organisation of the School Day and Week

The weekly (5-day week system) and daily timetables for upper secondary education are established by the administration council of the schools subsequent consultations with the teachers and the parents/the pupils and based on the following criteria: the number of classes per week and subject within the range established by the Frame Plans for each grade, and the minimum and maximum number of classes per week established by the Frame Plans for each grade. Acording to the provisions of the in-force Frame Plans, the total number of classes per week and grade for day-schooling upper secondary education depends on the education level, branch of study, profile and specialisation/ vocational qualification.

Upper secondary education is usually organised 5-day week system. Lessons are 50 minutes long and are followed by 10 minutes breaks. Most schools organise a 20 minutes break after the third lesson. In schools functioning in double shifts due to insufficient schooling capacity, certain classes start their programme from 12, 1 or 2 pm. Due to the fact that a given class studies either in the morning or in the afternoon, usually there is no lunch break specifically set in the daily timetables of the schools. The only exception to this situation is where schools organise at their own initiative after-school programmes for the pupils.

For individuals exceeding with more than 2 years the normal age of the grade, education within the compulsory sequence can be provided in other forms – evening classes, part-time education, distance learning – according to the rules established by the Ministry of Research, Youth and Sports.

Evening classes can be organised by the County School Inspectorates for the secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education – according to the existing resources and local demand. In this type of programme the number of classes per week is reduced (24-25) and the number of years of study is increased by one.

Schools can organise daily after-school activities for the pupils in cooperation with the parents, the local public administration authorities and other partners. During these activities pupils are supervised by the school’s teachers (usually the same teachers that work with the classes). The after-school activities can include supervised study, preparation of the homework, cultural and leisure activities, sports, etc. The necessary costs are mainly covered by the parents, but financial support can also be provided by local public administration authorities, NGOs, individuals, etc.