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Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

The general specific legislative framework for organizing and functioning of pre-university education, including early childhood education is provided by the Education Law (Law No.1/2011, with subsequent amendments) and by the GD No.1252/2012 on the Methodology of Organization and Functioning of Nurseries and Other Early Pre-school Education Services.

Geographical Accessibility

Generally, the territorial distribution of pre-school education units covers the population's needs.

In urban areas, in most neighbourhoods there is at least one kindergarten, near the children's residence. The parents may also enroll their children at a different kindergarten from that in the home vicinity, to the extent that there are places available. At the same time, for these situations, the parents assume their children's transportation.

The kindergarten network is relatively well developed in rural areas - in most villages existing at least one kindergarten or a school with pre-school groups level.

Regarding the nurseries or other early pre-school education services, their number is very low (namely: about 300 units, mostly in urban areas, serving around 16,000 children under 3 years).

Admission Requirements and Choice of ECEC institution

According to the National Education Law (Law No.1/2011, with subsequent amendments), article 23 (a), early education (0-6 years), consists of early pre-school level (0-3 years) and pre-school education (3-6 years).

Early education (the early pre-school and pre-school level) is held, usually in public and private nurseries/kindergartens that can provide three types of programs offered in the same institution or in different institutions: normal, extended and weekly program.
Both at early pre-school level and pre-school level, children are organized into age groups: lower group, middle group, upper group. 

Enrolling children in the units offering early pre-school education services is usually done around the age of 6 months, at the beginning of the school year or, in special circumstances, during the school year, in the order of documents submission and according to the available places and the approved tuition plan. When requesting the enrollment of brothers or children who are in the care of the same legal representative and there is only one place free in the age group of children, the number of places in the corresponding age group is supplemented with the number of children in this situation. Procedures and criteria for ranking the children at enrollment are set by the unit management in collaboration with the management board of the education unit that methodologically coordinate the early education activity and are made public by displaying at the premises of the early pre-school education unit. In order to adapt the child, after enrollment, the parent/legal representative may accompany the child during the nursery program for a period of maximum 15 days.

Parents or legal tutors can enroll their children from the age of 3 years old in the kindergarten they choose. For children attending an extended or weekly program, parents should contribute to the costs of the meals (). Children should be enrolled before the beginning of the school year. In some situations, however, enrolling the children is also accepted during the school year.

A significant number of kindergartens, particularly in urban areas, have developed optional curricula for study, including for example: the study of a modern language, sports and artistic activities etc. In case the teacher of the group has not the specialization needed to teach these optional subjects, the kindergartens hires specialist teachers and the group's teacher makes a team with the specialist teacher during the teaching-learning-assessment activity. 

The choice of institution in the rural areas can be limited because, usually, there is only one kindergarten in every village, offering mostly a normal program (4 hours).

The enrolling of children in kindergarten is done taking into account the availability of places, the age, the residence proximity and considering whether they have siblings enrolled in the kindergarten. Parents have the freedom to choose the service provider, taking into account the above mentioned criteria.

At enrollment in the nursery/kindergarten, the parents must submit to personnel the identification documents for child and family (birth certificate for the child / ID card for the parents), the child’s medical records, and eventually, parents’ income certificates (for those who require extended or weekly program and whose children benefit from meals).

Children with special educational needs may be enrolled in kindergartens and those with difficulties attested by a specialist diagnosis may benefit from a support teacher.

Age Levels and Grouping of Children

In early education children are organized into age groups: lower (up to 1 year old - early pre-school level, 3-4 years old - pre-school level), middle (1-2 years old - early pre-school level, 4-5 years old - pre-school level) and upper (2-3 years old - early pre-school level, 5-6 years old - pre-school level).

A group of early pre-school level works with 1 child carer-educator/shift - depending on the type of program - and includes 7 children on average, but no less than 5 and no more than 15. A group of pre-school level works with 1 teacher/shift depending on the type of program - and includes on average 15 children, no less than 10 and no more than 20.

For extended program and for weekly program, the teacher/child carer-educator works in shifts, by 5 hours each, with the same group of children who receive 10 hours of education and care services.

Organisation of Time

The functioning program of units/structures/departments which provides early pre-school education and care is flexible, intended to cover the needs of children and parents and can be:

  • a) normal program, up to 5 hours per day, depending on the parents' requests;
  • b) extended program, 10 hours a day;
  • c) weekly program, from Monday to Friday.

Within units/structures/departments with weekly program, the services can be provided during the night only in special and emergency situations of their parents/legal representatives, namely:

  • a) work program during the night for both parents/legal representatives or for single parent families;
  • b) medical emergencies of parents/legal tutors or other members of their family;
  • c) death in the family.

Pre-school education is organized in three types of programs, offered in the same kindergarten or in different kindergartens:

  • normal program (4 hours per day) - providing educational activities and adequate training of children for school and social life;
  • extended program (11 hours daily) - providing educational activities and adequate training of children for school and social life, as well as social protection for children (meals, supervision and rest time);
  • weekly program (from Monday to Friday) providing educational activities and adequate training of children for school and social life, as well as protection for children from environments and/or socially disadvantaged families (full accommodation and supervision during the working days of the week). 

Organisation of the Day and Week

Weekly timetable (5 days on week system) and daily timetables for units that provides early education (early pre-school and pre-school education) are established by the managing board of the institution after consultation with teachers and parents and based on the following criteria:

  • The type of program (normal, extended or weekly);
  • The number and types of activities per week established by the national curriculum for each group and type of program;
  • The minimum and maximum number of activities per week established by the national curriculum for each group and type of program.

Activities organized with the children in the afternoon (extended and weekly program) include: recreational activities, rest, development and exercising individual aptitudes, remedial education, etc.

In early pre-school education units a daily schedule for guidance is drawn up, but with a predictable sequence of activities, with a guiding value, depending on the number and age of children enrolled, the level of development and the characteristics of their individual needs, taking into account the preferences of parents. In designing the schedule for the groups of children of 1-2 years old and 2-3 years old, it is envisaged the combining of dynamic learning activities with quiet activities, namely: 30-60 minutes of activity, 2 times a day, consisting of drawing, listen to stories, sleep, depending on the child's personality and desire and combining these activities in the classroom with those outside. The program of infants is strictly individualized.