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Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

2016

Traceability

The launching of a EU-funded project is intended, that should set up a system of traceability between the educational system and the labour market by interconnecting the data in the education the Integrated Electronic Registry (REI) and the Integrated Computerized System of Romanian Education (SIIIR) with the ones on the labour market (REVISAL AJOFM and ANAF databases). The system’s implementation will be ensured by means of an inter-ministerial group and inter-ministerial protocols. 

Monitoring and forecast

Starting with June 2016, the POCA project Development of the capacity of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research to monitor and estimate the evolution of the higher education in relation with the labour market is being implemented, which supports the implementation of the increase of higher education quality and its correlation with the labour market.

The specific objectives of the project aim at:

  • the improvement of the strategic planning capacity of MENCS concerning the elaboration of policies and instruments leading to the increase of the employability of the graduates on the labour market.
  • the improvement of the decision-making process at MENCS level, to formulate analyses and forecasts by developing partnerships and a permanent mechanism of consultation of MENCS-universities-employers, including the development of instruments and methodologies regarding the applied learning.
  • the improvement of the capacity of the managment system of the educational system by developing the skills of the higher education system managers.
  • the development of the system’s capacity. 

Until the end of the IInd quarter/2017, three studies concerning the quality and relevance of the programmes provided by universities in specialization fields and the impact of the universities’ educational offers on the employers will be elaborated.

NEET's

The Minister of Labour, Family, Social Protection and the Elderly in partnership with the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and with the National Agency for Payments and Social Inspection (ANPIS) has started the project INTESPO – the Registration of the Youth in the Records of the Public Employment System, POCU project (Axis 2, Specific Objective 2.3).

The project’s general objective

The increase of the number of NEETs inactive youth registered at the Public Employment Service (SPO) in vue of providing customized support measures.

Specific objectives

  • Specific Objective 1 – Increasing the degree of information and awareness among the youth in the NEETs category regarding the advantages of enrolling to SPO and to the options that they have in order to integrate on the labour market, in education, training or entrepreneurship by making an information and awareness campaign at national level.
  • Specific Objective 2 – Setting up a support network at local level and a mechanism of working with the youth, in vue of identifying 200,000 persons belonging to the NEETs category as a basis for their identification and monitorization.

Target group

The project aims at minimum 200,000 inactive NEETs youth, aged 16-24, unenrolled at SPO; especially the NEETs youth that are further away from the labour market are taken into consideration, with a low skills level and/or with difficulties regarding social integration. 

2015

Mobility

For improving the mobility of graduates of the education and professional training systems and the efficient use of mobility tools in the European Europass portfolio, the ministry has introduced additional information and clarifications regarding the skills acquired by the graduates in the Diploma Supplement for the Bologna cycle and the Supplement to the professional qualification certificate.

Correlation with the labour market

The organization of conferences and the elaboration of reports on the employability on the labour market of higher education graduate (Tracer Study-type studies). By means of a strategic EU-funded project a computerized platform which will facilitate the access of universities to the monitoring tools already developed according to the Tracer Study model is established.  The preliminary analysis has identified a series of tools used by universities/other institutions for consulting with the students and has integrated the results of previous projects. Throughout the university year 2013/2014, 206 conferences for distributing the information on the graduates’ employability were organized by 53 higher education institutions and 260 reports were published, that should include information on the employability on the labour market.

The periodical correlation of the contents of the provided study programmes with the skills required by the labour market. From this perspective, all higher education institutions are engaged in a regular process, coordinated by the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, of redefining the skills required by the labour market for each qualification, of the tools for evaluating the acquired skills, of comparative evaluation of students from various universities and of comparing the achieved results with those from the annual internal evaluation Report. All undergraduate studies programmes within the structure of universities accredited or authorized to function temporarily have been evaluated or reevaluated, except for those functioning under liquidation. The external evaluation Methodology for the certification and periodical evaluation of the university master studies fields has been completed and the evaluation activity has been planned. As well, the process of certification for new university master studies fields and of fitting in new university master studies programmes in certified university master studies fields has begun. At the moment, all the certified universities have been evaluated at least once. Some universities have been re-evaluated, others are undergoing the reevaluation procedure. 947 programmes (once every 5 years) from 77 education institutions have been evaluated externally.

Involvement of representative social partners in correlating the occupational standards associated with the labour market requirements. During 2014, 3 representative partners were consulted. During 2014, 18 specialized Sectorial Committees, Federations and Employer’s Associations were consulted in activities such as: elaboration of occupational standards, establishment of qualification levels, introduction of qualifications in the Nomenclature of Qualifications for which qualification courses can be organized. Likewise, in 2014 40 occupational standards were set up, of which 28 were approved and 12 are in process of being elaborated. 

For strengthening the professional counselling and orientation system of the students, Departments of analysis and forecast management of the labour market demands, from 50 counselling centers in the universities were established and equipped with IT equipment.

Relevant projects for the correlation of the higher education system with the labour market requierments:

  • By means of the project Convergence of university training with active life in the economic field 3 centres for practical training in the economic field and 3 computerized applications have been created. The number of students supported in the transition from school to active life exceeded the predictions of the project, that is, 496 students were involved compared to 450 estimated at the start of the project.
  • Within the project Evidence-based policies and the impact on the labour market (which is to be completed in the IIIrd Quarter of 2015) an analysis report of the needs and functionalities necessary for the interoperability of the management systems existing at the higher education level and a document presenting the methodologies and tools for consulting the students and graduates have been completed. The following are under implementation: a reporting system (3 sets of reports - statistical, at management level, at student level), a contact data acquisition module of the students/graduates, a profile taking over component for the social media network, an outcomes analysis module. 

2014

Participation to the labour market

Improving the participation to the labour market, by evaluation and certification of the skills acquired in the informal or non-formal education and professional training system.

National Jobs Plan 

The main commitments within the National Jobs Plan, in the field of:

  • (A) Early intervention and activation
    • (i) Identifying and reaching the target group, by Creating partnerships between NCDVTE, the school inspectorates, the schools and CEA
    • (ii) Maintaining the youth in the education system:
      • (a) Continuing the implementation of the A second chance for the primary and lower secondary education programme
      • (b) Continuing the implementation of The national social protection programme, The professional scholarship
      • (c) Continuing the implementation of the High school money national social protection programme.
  • (B) Integration of youth on the labour market
    • (i) Improving the transitions from the education system to the labour market:
      • (a) Subsidizing the employers for offering a job to the young graduates 
      • (b) Subsidizing the employers for offering apprenticeships to the youth
      • (c) Professional counselling and orientation
      • (d) Professional training. 
    • (ii) Increasing the occupational mobility of the youth:
      • (a) Granting mobility bonuses to the youth, including to the long term unemployed
      • (b) Granting setting-up supports to the youth, including to the long term unemployed
      • (c) Personalized accompaniment for the youth with social marginalization risk, including by subsidizing the employers who hire persons from this category.
    • (iii) Stimulating the employment on one’s own and the entrepreneurship for the youth:
      • (a) Granting subsidies for establishing and developing companies by young entrepreneurs
      • (b) Developing entrepreneurial abilities among the youth and facilitating their access to funding. 
    • (iv) Facilitating youth integration on the labour market:
      • (a) Guarantee for Youth pilot schemes.

NEET's

​In October 2014, an “Implementation Agreement” for four national priorities was signed, of which one refers to “Jobs for the youth”. All the four priority areas will be monitored by a Priorities Implementation Unit under the direct coordination of the Prime Minister. The Priorities Implementation Unit will benefit from the technical assistance of the World Bank. 

This Implementation Agreement represents a key component of the Government’s commitment to increase the employment rate of the youth in Romania. The agreement includes objectives regarding the increase of the public information rate regarding the opportunities and support measures available for the youth, the increase of the number of NEETs registered at the Public Employment Service  (PES) in order to access the active measures for stimulating employment, strengthening the institutional capacity of PES for increasing the efficiency, efficacy and the coverage rate of services at national and local level.

The Ministry of National Education is involved in:

  • creating an integrated database that should allow the central administration institutions to identify NEETs (young people that are not employed and are not attending any educational or training programme = not in employment, education or training)
  • adopting the legislation that should allow the setting up and functioning of the Permanent Learning Community Centres.​

Source: The National Reform Programme 2014, Government of Romania, Bucharest, April 2014. [only in Romanian language] 
http://www.mae.ro/sites/default/files/file/Europa2020/pnr_2014_romania.pdf