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Romania:National Reforms in School Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

2016

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research continues the reforms in the field of education and training, in view of ensuring an education adapted to the labour market requirements and focused on personal and social development, with positive impact on the prevention and combating the early school leave.

Curricular policies

The calendar for elaborating the new curriculum and the school syllabi was approved as early as April 2015 and it establishes the deadlines for achieving the curriculum frameworks and the syllabi for the secondary and high school cycle until December 2017. Starting with the school year 2013-2014 the new school curriculum for the preparatory grade and the Ist grade has been applied; from the school year 2014-2015 for the IInd grade; and from the school year 2015-2016 for the IIIrd grade. In the school year 2016-2017, the new curriculum for the IVth grade, which has already been elaborated, shall be applied.

The curriculum framework for the secondary education have been approved. The curriculum framework includes, as a novelty: The computer science in the common core, Technological Education and practical applications, the Education for citizenship, with school subjects over the years of study: Critical Thinking and the Children’s Rights, Tolerance and Intercultural Education, Juridical Education and Democratic Citizenship, Economic and Financial Education and Entrepreneurship. The school syllabi are under elaboration, the deadline being the Ist semester of 2017.

For each school subject, the school curriculum will reflect the 75% for the teaching and evaluation process. The rest of 25% will be made available to the teacher for recovery, remedial activities or consolidation, according to the needs ascertained when working in the class (which opens the door to innovation and customization for each subject).

The composition of the Elaboration groups of school curricula for the secondary education was approved by ministerial order.

The framework plan for the high school education, the curricular development calendar was postponed/delayed, being necessary to correlate the activities and deadlines in the Curricular Development Calendar 2015-2017 with the one of the ROSE Project financed by the World Bank (the project also represents the main funding source of the development of the national curriculum for high school).

With regard to enhancing the access to digital resources in the pre-university education and the school textbooks’ evaluation, the school textbooks for the IIIrd grade have been finalized. The electronic school textbooks are published online on the Website www.manuale.edu.ro. Starting with the school year 2016-2017, the pupils in the upper cycle of high school (XIth and XIIth grades) will also benefit from free textbooks.

The quality of the educational act

In order to increase the quality of the pre-university education, the improvement of the normative framework for the selection and stabilisation of the managers of the education units and school inspectorates is considered.

The specific methodologies aim at the job stability of the managers and of the inspectors over a 4 year period.

Therefore, in October 2016, the written test at national level of the competition for filling the posts of director and deputy director was conducted for all the pre-university education units, and from the 17th of October to the 7th of December 2016, the CV evaluation tests and the interview are being conducted.

The Ministry considers the development and implementation of a strategic project concerning the operationalization of the Teaching Master for the elaboration of the university syllabi corresponding to this specialization level.

Vulnerable groups

In order to process the data for producing the official education statistics, including for the adoption of a set of procedures concerning the facilitation of the access and the increase of the school participation for the children in vulnerable groups, The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and the National Institute of Statistics was completed which is going to be approved in September 2016.

In order to extend the measures of prevention and intervention concerning the early school leave, including by individualized support for the pupils exposed to the early school leave risk and considering that the data for interventions such as the ones in the School after school programme are centralized at local level, as well as considering the fact that an analysis of the programme’s impact for its possible revision or extension is necessary and for accessing EU-funded projects, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research has begun inventorying such interventions at national level.

The government decision for financing the School after School programme for the pupils coming from disadvantaged groups will be adopted until December 2016.

The implementation of the A second chance for the primary education and the secondary lower education programmes shall be continued, including for youth aged 16-24 years. In view of extending the programmes of A Second Chance type, especially in the rural areas and in the ones with Roma population, the school inspectorates will be supported by launching competitive projects.

Social programmes

With regard to the consolidation of the social package for education concerning the pupils belonging to the groups with specific risks, MENCS continues to conduct annual social programmes in order to support the pupils from the disadvantaged areas: School Supplies, High School Money, Euro 200 and Milk and Roll, and also The Reimbursement of the Transportation Expenses and School Buses. Conditions for ensuring equal opportunities to education for the pupils coming from high risk groups are created by means of these programmes. 

The ROSE Project regarding the Secondary Education 

In view of stimulating the upper secondary education graduates to continue the studies in the tertiary education (higher education or other forms of post high school education), the implementation of the ROSE Project regarding the Secondary Education was started. The activities include funds granted to high schools with low performances, by means of a grant scheme, in order to reduce the early school leaving rate, to increase the graduation rate and to improve the performance at the baccalaureate exam.

The main actions that can be financed from grants are: (i) remedial, counselling, vocational guidance  (at least 50% from the direct costs); (ii) extracurricular and information activities, such as visits/trips for documentation, training stages, participations to competitions and forming interschool networks (up to 30% from the direct costs); (iii) minor civil works of renovation, improvement of the inner parts of school buildings (for example: laboratories), without a negative impact over the environment and purchase of goods (up to 20% from the direct costs). Each grant will be implemented for a four year period.

The systemic interventions are intended to improve the quality of education in the upper secondary education and include activities such as: review of the high school curriculum, teachers’ training and the review of the evaluation items for the national examinations. The interventions at the level of the universities in the public education system, by grant awarding, are intended to support the students at risk. 

For the implementation of the project and the start of the grant scheme for high schools, 60 consultants were selected and trained in view of providing technical assistance for the facilitation of the preparation and submission of the corresponding project proposals and the Handbook of grants for high schools is under elaboration.

In this context, the facilitation process addressed to the high schools which will participate to the first tranche of the grant scheme has begun and the selection procedures of the consultants who will elaborate the guidelines necessary for the performance of the pedagogical and support activities that shall be carried out in high schools and faculties have been launched.

The Integrated Educational Registry 

The development and integration of the computerized system in education and research. The activities related to the operationalization of the Integrated Educational Registry (REI) are continued. REI will ensure the interoperability between the management systems existing in the educational sector, as well as with the management systems developed within other central institutions from public interest sectors. To this end, it is intended that until the end of the IIIrd Quarter/2016 the interoperability between SIIIR (the Integrated Computerized System of the Romanian Education) and REI (the Integrated Educational Registry) should be achieved, so that the data of the graduates from the 2015-2016 class may be taken over by the universities.

2015

Strategy to reduce early school leaving

At the beginning of the school year 2015-2016, the strategy was presented to teachers. 

Legislation

For ensuring a better development of the educational process and for solving the malfunctions occurred in the implementation of the Education Law No.1/2011, on the 30th of December 2013 GEO No.117/2013 for amending and supplementing the National Education Law No.1/2011 and for taking some measures in the education field came into effect.

The main amendments proposed by GEO are:

  • The modification of the high school studies’ duration (from 3 to 4 years) for guaranteeing an appropriate training of the pupils’ skills for this schooling level (in accordance with the eight key skills established in the EU)
  • Introducing transdisciplinary PISA-type tests at the National Evaluation
  • Introducing the high school entrance (if the number of candidates is higher than the number of places)
  • Allocating a separate fund for institutional development to the state universities which is targeted to the most efficient higher education institutions in each category and are assigned according to performance criteria base on international standards, etc.

By the Government Emergency Ordinance No. 49/2014 on the amendment and supplementation of the Law of National Education No. 1/2011 and for taking measures in the education field some completions to the Law of National Education No. 1/2011 were inserted, of which we would like to mention:

  • the possibility to extend the vocational education, above the 3 year-limit, if the organizing economic agent of the programme considers this measure as being necessary
  • part of the tertiary, non-university education, the post secondary education may be organized in post secondary schools/post secondary colleges, within the high schools with legal personality or within the certified higher education institutions
  • the teachers with a seniority in education of more than 25 years, with the teacher certification – level 1 and those in the mentoring teachers body may benefit from a reduction by 2 hours of the teaching norm (from 18 to 16 hours/week), without a salary reduction
  • acknowledging the Master in Teaching, in parallel with the Psychopedagogy modules I and II.

Likewise, also by the clarifications provided by the above mentioned Emergency Ordinance, the completion and the implementation of the Regulation of organization and functioning of the pre-university education units (ROFUIP) and of the Boards of Directors Regulation (RCA) were possible. 

The Methodology for enrollment of children in the primary education for the 2015-2016 school year, as well as syllabus for the high school, high school-teacher teaching education and three syllabus for optional subjects have been approved.

Curricular policies

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research (MENCS) has continued the curricular reform by completing the new syllabus for the IIIrd and the IVth grades. The syllabi’s validation has been performed by means of an extensive consultation process at which more than 8,000 teachers and school inspectors took part. Thus, the review of the syllabus for the primary cycle (including the syllabus for the national minorities) has been completed. 

The curriculum policy document that underlies the current curriculum model already implemented into the curriculum for primary education and that prepares the public consultation for gymnasium and high schools curriculum was developed and is subjected to consultation with stakeholders.

In April 2015, the Calendar of the curricular development 2015-2017 was approved. The document presents the main activities in the field of the national Curriculum elaboration, according to the strategic target and the major courses of action for the mentioned reference period. The strategic target is represented by the implementation in the middle school and in the high school education, starting with the school year 2017-2018 (at the fifth and ninth grade) of new curricula and new syllabi. Likewise, during 2015 the working groups will begin the syllabus elaboration process for the secondary education.

Concerning the enhancement of access to digital resources in pre-university education and the textbook evaluation, textbooks for the third grade for some subjects (foreign languages, Orthodox religion and visual arts and practical skills) have been completed. Electronic textbooks are published online on the website www.manuale.edu.ro

Evaluation in education

In order to ensure the accuracy and equity of the evaluation in education, among the most important measures taken by The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research have been those that considered the organization of the simulations for the national evaluation examination at the end of the VIIIth grade and for the Baccalaureate examination, both at the XIth grade and at the XIIth grade. These simulations were carried out in March this year based on subjects established at national level and under similar conditions as the national examinations.

The evaluations for the second, fourth and sixth grades have been conducted in May this year based on subjects established at national level. The applied tests have a high degree of interdisciplinarity and do not focus on memorization and reproduction, but on the pupil’s capacity to use and correlate the information that he/she has accumulated until a certain moment. The outcome of the evaluations is not a grade in the gradebook. They offer teachers, pupils and parents conclusive information about the level of training and about what is necessary to be improved. At national level, a report is going to be elaborated, with evaluations on each skill, for the second, fourth and sixth grades, which will be the basis for the measures that will have to be adopted in order to remedy the deficiencies.

Vulnerable groups

For the purpose of accelerating the transition from institutional care to alternative care for the children deprived of parental care and for supporting the local public administration authorities in view of developing the day care services designed to prevent the separation of the child from the family, MLFSPE funds the development of the community services network, in 2013, 18 community services for preventing child separation from the family being established, and another 100 projects for which the funding contracts were signed are under implementation. 

The assurance of equal access to education, especially for the groups with particular risks, has focused on three important levels:

  • preventing the early leaving of the educational system
  • intervention for keeping the pupils with school dropout risk in the system
  • bringing those who are outside the educational system back to school.

From this perspective, The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research implements educational programmes and projects, a significant number of them benefiting from EU funding. 

Regarding the finalization and adoption of a set of procedures for identifying and monitoring the children out of the education system, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research has drafted a protocol of collaboration with the National Institute of Statistics to determine the type of data necessary to calculate specific indicators to identify and monitor those children out of the education system, having the school age and who are not listed in the SIIIR application.

Implementing of some measures of compensation/correction for disadvantaged groups continued through the Second Chance program, in the academic year 2014-2015, it has been implemented in 287 schools, comprising a total of 12,597 participants.

Social programmes

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research continues to carry out annual social programmes that in spite of the budgetary austerity, are conceived and financed for the purpose of supporting the pupils in disadvantaged areas:

  • School supplies – providing school supplies for the pupils enrolled in the primary and secondary education – day classes – and belonging to families  whose average net income per family household member represent maximum 50% of the minimum gross salary at national level
  • Money for High School – monthly scholarship (allowance) for the pupils belonging to families from disadvantaged economic and social environments, granted for them to continue the studies after completing the secondary studies
  • Euro 200 – financial support granted in order to stimulate the purchase of personal computers for those pupils and students coming from disadvantaged economic social areas
  • The Roll and the Milk and the Honey and Fruits programmes
  • The Vocational Scholarship programme
  • The (performance, merit, study and social support) scholarship programmes granted to the pupils in the full-time state pre-university education system 
  • The reimbursement of the transportation expenses
  • School buses.

By means of these programmes, conditions for providing equal opportunities to education for the pupils coming from the high-risk groups are created.

Integrated Information System of Education in Romania

The Integrated Information System of Education in Romania (Sistemul Informatic Integrat al Invatamantului din Romania-SIIIR), designed to be a mechanism for collecting and processing data at MENCS level is functional for a number of modules:

  • School Network (It includes information regarding all units of the Romanian educational system, both public and private authorized/recognized, as well as workflows related to the network design and approval)
  • Tuition Plan (It includes information regarding the educational offer of schools, as well as the approval/modification flows and the reporting of the tuition plan achievement)
  • Education Unit Management (It includes specific detailed information about the education units and the study formations (classes/groups) created under the approved Tuition plan)
  • Management of student (It includes analytical data about the children/students subordinated to the educational units, as well as their association (registration) into the study formations of the school. It also includes the sub-modules "Students promotion" and "Students enrolment" that provide the workflows necessary for the transition of the students into the new school year, and respectively the enrollment of the newcomer students through the "Admission to high school" or "Enrollment in primary education" modules)
  • Material resources (It includes all buildings, classrooms, lands and means of transport related to each education unit - detailed at the facilities, utilities, destinations levels or the technical condition, respectively)
  • Student Enrolment in preschool education (It contains analytical data regarding the applications for enrollment or re-enrollment in kindergarten, submitted by applicants (parents/legal representatives), for the 2015-2016 school year)
  • Student Enrolment in primary education (It contains analytical data regarding the applications for enrollment in preparatory class, submitted by applicants (parents/legal representatives), for the 2015-2016 school year).

All modules contain sections of reports which include both data export facilities, and their synthesizing and aggregation at higher hierarchical levels.

The ROSE Project regarding the Secondary Education

Title

The project on the secondary education (Romania Secondary Education Project – ROSE)

Duration

7 years

Funding 

loan amounting to 200 million euros from the World Bank. The agreement between the World Bank and the Romanian Government was signed at the end of March 2015.

Responsible institution

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research

Main objectives

increasing the quality of education by improving the transition rate from the upper secondary education (high school) to the tertiary (higher) education, respectively increasing the chances of Romanian pupils to successfully complete the high school studies and to be admitted to the faculty. The project addresses the needs of pupils in the position of leaving the studies, at high school or university level, in this way becoming a fundamental intervention tool.

Beneficiaries

The project’s beneficiaries are: (i) the pupils in the state high schools with poor results at the Baccalaureate examination; (ii) the personnel in these high schools, including the principals and the teachers; (iii) the students enrolled in the first years of faculty from the public higher education institutions and (iv) the personnel from the selected higher education institutions.

Due to the significant discrepancy in terms of the graduation rate of the secondary higher education among the Roma population, the project will also pay special attention to the constraints of these students.

Components

The project’s components: 

  • interventions at the high school level/interventions at system level corresponding to the high school level
  • interventions at university level
  • management, monitoring and evaluation activities.

2014

The reforms are ongoing. 

Legislation

At the beginning of 2014, Ministry of National Education completed the analysis of the services/key process in the existing education and IT system field, as well as the review activity of theNational System of Indicators for Education.

Ministry of National Education will launch the creation of the institutional framework for lifelong learning by completing the Methodology on the organization and operation of the lifelong learning community Centres

Strengthening the career guidance and counselling of the final-year students and pupils by setting up career guidance and counselling centers. Improving the career guidance and counselling at the level of pre-university educational units by: (i) monitoring the guidance and counselling activity within the County/Bucharest Municipality Centers for Resources and Educational Assistance (CCREA/BMCREA) and the County/Bucharest Municipality Centers for Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance (CCPA/BMCPA); (ii) disseminating good practice in the school guidance and counselling field (within the methodical meetings with the school inspectors, principals, teachers, school advisors).  

Curricular policies

Ministry of National Education will continue the curricular reform by modernizing the school curriculum and by improving the pupils’ evaluation system. Thus, starting with 2014, Ministry of National Education will generalize the national evaluations at the end of the IInd, the IVth and the VIth grades for the skills in the vocational and technical education, too. 

For the purpose of improving the access to digital resources and instruments in the pre-university education, Ministry of National Education will ensure the connection of 2,400 schools to Internet at the end of the Internet in your school project and will publish on its portal the didactic resources already elaborated by means of ESF projects within POS DRU.

The quality of the educational act

Assuring the quality of the educational act in the pre-university education by:

  • (a) organizing, in March of the current year, by Ministry of National Education, the simulations of the national evaluation examination at the end of the VIIIth grade and of the Baccalaureate examination, both at the XIth grade and at the XIIth grade. These simulations were conducted based on subjects established at national level and in similar conditions to the national examinations. In May 2014 the stipulations of the National Education Law No. 1/2011 concerning the generalisation of national evaluations at the end of the IInd, IVth and VIth grade will be enforced, at national level, after these evaluations have been tested in the previous school years
  • (b) implementing the POS DRU project ”An efficient education based on fundamental decisions – Strategies of capitalizing on the international evaluations regarding the learning outcomes” by which an analysis study of the typical mistakes of pupils at PIRLS and TIMSS tests has been made. Based on the mentioned study, teachers training courses are carried out and methodological guidelines for improving teaching and skills evaluation are elaborated. 

Vulnerable groups

For improving the access to education of disadvantaged persons, Ministry of National Education continues to implement its social programmes and it will extend programmes like A second chance, especially in the rural areas and in the areas with Roma population. 

In 2014, Ministry of National Education will implement prevention and intervention measures, including by granting individualized support to the pupils exposed to early school leave risk by extending programmes like School after school at local level.

Ministry of National Education will implement compensation and intervention measures for the groups with specific risks, by multiplying programmes like A second chance, especially in the rural areas and in the ones with Roma population and will create the methodological framework concerning the Functional literacy for facilitating the interventions intended for increasing the literacy level. 

Social programmes

As in the previous years, Ministry of National Education will also continue in the 2014/2015 school year to implement social programmes (The roll and the milk, High school money, Euro 200, School supplies, Scholarships granting, Transportation reimbursement), and the pupils from the rural and small urban area until now have benefited  from the extention with 600 units of the fleet of school minibuses.

Source: The National Reform Programme 2014, Government of Romania, Bucharest, April 2014. [only in Romanian language]
http://www.mae.ro/sites/default/files/file/Europa2020/pnr_2014_romania.pdf