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Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

2016

Strategies

The National Strategy regarding the internationalization of the higher education in Romania for the period 2016-2015 is under progress. For that end, at MENCS level a working group was set up for the elaboration of the strategy based on the strategic framework regarding the internationalization of education developed in partnership with the International Association of Universities and of 20 Romanian universities in the period 2014-2015.

The  framework of implementation, coordination and monitoring the National strategy for tertiary education 2015-2020 is has been elaborated. The Technical Group for coordinating the implementation of the strategy is operational.

Legislation

From the beginning of the year until now a new legislative framework regarding the PhDs in Romania has been adopted and the selection of a new CNATDCU council and specialized commissions has been made. The PhD schools will be evaluated internationally, according to the law. This exercise will be organized within a strategic, non-competitive POCU project, (already assumed at MENCS-MFE level). 

At the beginning of November 2016, MENCS has launched for public consultation three methodologies projects regarding the automatic recognition by the Romanian accredited universities of the PhD diplomas, of the teaching roles and of the PhD supervisor capacity achieved abroad.

Financing

The financing of state universities for 2016: the Methodology includes the increase of the proportion of indicators aiming to attract and support the disadvantaged groups, the internationalization of education and the institutional transparency. The financing resources/the preparation of the documentation in order to elaborate the national strategy on the internationalization of the higher education have been identified. Likewise, a Ministerial Order is pending approval, by which the universities are stimulated to promote their educational offer on the Study in Romania portal. 

The quality of higher education

In order to increase the quality of the higher education, MENCS has submitted 2 European funding projects (POCU) regarding the evaluation of PhD schools; the internationalization of higher education. 

Vulnerable groups

In order to support the students from the rural area, the disadvantaged groups and the non-traditional students to participate in the tertiary education the implementation of the social programmes for students is continuing: scholarships, subsidies for accommodation and meal, partial settlement of the transportation. 

The system of granting the amount allocated by the Ministry for student scholarships has been reformed. It has increased by 20% in 2016 compared to 2015.

The ROSE Project regarding the Secondary Education

The stimulation of the higher secondary education graduates, for continuing their studies in the tertiary education (higher education or other forms of post-secondary education): The project concerning the secondary education (ROSE – Romanian Secondary Education) aims to increase the transition rate of pupils from high school to faculty, as well as the increase of their retention rate in the first year of higher education. 

The ROSE project aims at interventions at high schools and faculties level and systemic interventions at the pre-university education level.

Each grant will be implemented for a four-year period.

The systemic interventions are intended to improve the quality of education in the upper secondary education and include activities such as: the review of the high school curriculum, the teachers’ training and the review of the evaluation items for the national examinations.

The interventions at the level of the universities from the public education system, by awarding grants, are intended to support the students at risk. 

Integrated Educational Registry

The Integrated Educational Registry:

  • It ensures the interoperability between the management systems existing in the educational sector, as well as with the management systems developed within other central institutions in public interest sectors.
  • It is operational, ensuring the interoperability of the system with the Integrated Computerized System of the Romanian Education (SIIIR), by integrating a module of correlation and visualization of the nomenclatures in the Unique Matriculation Register (RMU) application with those from SIIIR.

With regard to the achievement of the interoperability with the central institutions that need data certified by MENCS/universities, the legal collaboration relations with the central institutions and the institutions of secure data transfer to INS are undergoing regulation.

2015

Strategies

The National Strategy for Tertiary Education 2015-2020. The unitary framework for implementation, coordination and monitoring of the strategy is being developed.

Legislation

It is ongoing the centralization process of statistical data needed to pilot the Methodology of budgetary allocations distribution for financing the public universities that also includes a set of quality indicators regarding the regional guidelines and social equity.

In order to strengthen the vocational guidance and counselling system of the students and pupils in the terminal years, the framework methodology on the organization and functioning of the Counselling and Guidance Centres in the Romanian higher education system was approved. The objectives of these centres consist in counselling the students and graduates with regard to the educational path, reducing the academic dropout and facilitating the relation between the students and the labour market.

Vulnerable groups

Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research continues the implementation of the social programmes for students (scholarships, grants for housing and food, partial reimbursement of travelling expenses), for supporting the students in the rural area, the disadvantaged groups and the non-traditional students in order to increase the participation rate in the tertiary education.

Impact studies have been conducted concerning the main social policies in education (national scholarship student system, social services, special places allocated for young Roma), the results being available in electronic version (at the address: [1]). The strategic document includes an analysis of the current situation concerning the access and participation in higher education and contains a set of strategic directions that can be implemented to improve the current situation regarding the participation in education, the transition from high school to university and the participation of disadvantaged groups in higher education.

Also, the strategic document White Book for equity and access to higher education was elaborated, its electronic version being available online. 

Through the progress of the Project “The development and implementation of an integrated pilot-programme for the increase of the access to higher education for disabled people” computerized (software) tools were developed, for improving the educational processes and activities: conversion system of the teaching material designed for the disabled people in appropriate formats for their training; an e-Learning solution developed, implemented and adapted for disabled people; an evaluation system of the students in the target group, of the teachers/mentors and of the systems’ contents. Within the project 443 persons were trained for the educational mentorship of disabled students and 388 students with disabilities were continuously assisted for 2 years, in order to use the developed TIC  facilities, being also supported financially with monthly scholarships.

Within the PODCA project “Substantiated Public Policies in the Higher Education: a Premise for Romania’s Development” (PODCA BOLOGNA), the dimension of the access and equity in the higher education was addressed, with the following results: (i) an analysis of the national higher education system from the perspective of the access and equity; (ii) a set of recommendations for the improvement of the current national policies; (iii) a set of recommendations for the institutional level (universities); (iv) a national conference which gathered the representatives of the European Commission, of the Ministry of Education, national agencies and councils, universities, students and where aspects concerning the access and equity policies were debated and the above mentioned recommendations were agreed upon.


Monitoring of the insertion

In view of creating a computerized platform that will facilitate the access of universities to the tools for monitoring the graduates’ insertion on the labour market, through the project co-financed by means of FSE The management of correlating the education system with the labour market the uploading of the database integrated in the management systems of 50 universities was performed. 

In order to strengthen the tools for monitoring the insertion of higher education graduates in the labour market, there is under implementation, by using the previously developed software platform, the National study for monitoring the employability of graduates, Bachelor's degree cycle, promotions 2010 and 2014, financed through a POS DRU project. 

Quality assurance

The project Quality assurance within the higher education by elaborating and steering the empowerment and audit methodologies, implemented by the Executive Unit for Financing the Higher Education System, the Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI), will form members of the management structures, as well as students in view of understanding the audit and empowerment process and it will contribute to the development of empowerment and audit methodologies of the human resources or of the intellectual capital.As the human resources empowerment process is a new procedure introduced in the higher education system, there is a need for participation in the development of the empowerment methodologies, but also to increase the capacity of the empowerment commissions members in evaluating the files and the candidates’ capabilities. Within the project the steering and testing of the self-evaluation chart regarding the audit of the human resources in the universities, within the methodological framework for the human resources testing, in over 58 universities, was performed.

Through the project “Projects Exchange” the innovative-entrepreneurial type culture at the level of Romanian universities was developed and supported by creating an online platform, a space where the ideas and business proposals of the students should encounter the potential funding authority in the business environment. At the partner universities (the Bucharest Polytechnic University, the Suceava Stefan cel Mare University, the Petroleum-Gas University from Ploiesti, the Ovidius University from Constanta) four laboratories which support the students with entrepreneurial spirit to develop their ideas and to turn them into successful projects were launched. The students have access to the equipment from the laboratories and to the online platform where they find implementation modalities for their projects by means of the mentors and of the economic environment.

Another important reform measure of the higher education system was the continuation of the measures for the internal assurance of the quality and human resource at the higher education system level. A relevant action is the development and update of the Brain Romania portal, intended for the relation with the Diaspora in the education and scientific research, students, university professors and researchers in innovation, etc.


Unique Matriculation Register. Integrated Electronic Registry

The Unique Matriculation Register (Registru Matricol Unic-RMU) of universities is updated on its online component and currently the updated RMU application is being tested, which provides the integration of the entire process of developing and updating the nomenclatures for all university study cycles.

The Integrated Electronic Registry system interoperability (Registrul Electronic Integrat-REI) with SIIIR is being finalized by integrating of a nomenclatures correlation and visualization module from RMU application with those from SIIIR. By developing REI, the project aims to achieve the interoperability between the existing databases in the system of education, in order to strengthen the individual's educational path. Thus, by REI the data acquisition concerning pre-university education will be facilitated from SIIIR into RMU, which can be a first step in developing the online mode of admission at national level. The system also integrates a module for updating and generating the nomenclatures for higher education (at national and institutional level, with the access granted for the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (Agentia Romana de Asigurare a Calitatii in Invatamantul Superior-ARACIS), MENCS and the universities), providing the integration and the uniqueness of nomenclatures used also at the SIIIR level. 

2014

Legislation 

In order to adapt the higher education to the labour market requirements, Ministry of National Education will consolidate the instruments for monitoring the insertion of the higher education graduates on the labour market, in view of periodically making prognosis studies and disseminating their results. For this purpose, Ministry of National Education will make a computer platform which will facilitate the universities’ access to the monitoring instruments made until now (by means of the already implemented POS DRU projects) and it will adapt and customize these instruments. At the same time Ministry of National Education will consolidate a strategical IT system for the higher education which will contribute to the substantiation of its educational policies.

Adjusting the university system to the labour market requirements by eliminating some university syllabi and specializations starting with the 2014-2015 academic year. From the perspective of the quality of the educational act and of the relevance for the labour market, MNE has decided to abolish 186 specializations in 2013 followed by another 135 in 2014. Moreover, 3 universities are in a monitoring programme and for 4 others all programme are undergoing liquidation. The action has entailed the elaboration and adoption of the GD regulating the List of the Bachelor studies fields and specializations/programmes and of the structure of the higher education institutions for the 2014/2015 university.


Vulnerable groups

Ministry of National Education will continue the implementation of the social programmes for students (scholarships, subsidies for accommodation and meals, partial reimbursement of the transportation) for supporting the students in the rural areas, the disadvantaged groups and the non-traditional students in view of increasing the participation rate in the tertiary education. Furthermore, Ministry of National Education will promote the granting of a 200 Eur supplementation to the scholarship received by those ERASMUS students coming from the rural areas or from disadvantaged groups and  will continue to allocate special places for the Roma students in the state universities. 

Quality assurance

In order to increase the mobility of the graduates of the education and professional training systems, Ministry of National Education ensure the insertion of the mobility instruments from the Europass European Portfolio within the education and professional training systems (The diploma supplement for the Bologna cycle and the Supplement to the professional qualifications certificate). (Government Decision No.  607/2014) 

According to some recently approved legislative provisions, Career Counselling and Orientation Centres must be established and must function in all higher education institutions. Until now Departments of analysis and forecast management of the labour market requirements were set up and provided with IT equipment, in the 50 counselling centres in the universities, and for some of them employees from among of teachers were recruited. Likewise, all the 92 universities will have to set up Career Counselling and Orientation Centres until the Ist Quarter of 2015.

NHER

Development of theNational Qualifications System in the Romanian Higher Education, by:

  • (a) Operationalisation of the National Higher Education Registry (NHER)
  • (b) Updating and harmonization of qualifications from the National Qualifications Framework
  • (c) The Registry of Adult Professional Training Providers.

In order to allow the users to consult more easily the database of the National Higher Education Qualifications Registry (NHEQR) and to extract the necessary information, the interface was modified and additional functions were added. 

​The current National Qualifications Registry in the Higher Education (NQRHE) will be integrated in the National Qualifications Registry (NQR).

Source: The National Reform Programme 2014, Government of Romania, Bucharest, April 2014. [only in Romanian language] 
http://www.mae.ro/sites/default/files/file/Europa2020/pnr_2014_romania.pdf


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