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Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

The education, as a factor of progress, in Romania, is based on the equal opportunities principle, which implicitly leads to a high level of mobility. The Romanian educational system seeks to  improve performance as regards the mobility, area that has a major impact not just on the learning and professional training, independence and social interdependence, cross-cultural communication experiences, but also on the labor market integration. The educational policy promoted in Romania supports the mobility and exchange for pupils and teachers at all levels of education. From the previous experience, the mobility and exchange actions have proven their contribution to enhancing the quality of education and to opening the educational system.

Pupil and Student Mobility

The mobility and exchange for pupils in Romania are ensured by the following types of cooperation programmes and initiatives in the field of education and training:

  • The European Union Programmes;
  • Programmes of cooperation and bilateral initiatives;
  • Programmes of cooperation and multilateral initiatives (other than the action programmes of the European Community);
  • Unilateral initiatives for supporting the pupils’ mobility;
  • Virtual mobility through e-Twinning type projects or own initiatives as a result of the educational partnerships/agreements.


The types of activities involved, the duration, the sources and the funding mechanisms, as well as the bodies responsible regarding the pupils’ mobility through the programmes of the European Union are established within the legal framework and the guidelines of the respective programmes.

The mobility and the exchange of pupils within the cooperation programmes and the bi- and multilateral initiatives in the field of education and professional training are regulated through the conventions concluded between the Romanian Government/the Ministry of National Education and the Governments/ministries of education from the respective countries. According to the specificity of the programme and the parties’ interests, the bi- and multilateral cooperation programmes may include the mutual granting of scholarships – for partial or complete studies at various levels of education.

Regardless of the type of scholarship granted, the duration of studies performed abroad is completely acknowledged on the pupil’s return to the country.

Teacher Mobility

The mobility and the exchange for the teaching staff in Romania are ensured through the following types of cooperation programmes and initiatives in the education and training field:

  • The European Union Programmes and the European Council programmes for the continuous training of the educational personnel;
  • Cooperation programmes and bilateral initiatives;
  • Cooperation programmes and multilateral initiatives (other than the European Union programmes);
  • Unilateral initiatives for supporting the mobility of the teaching staff.

The types of activities involved the duration, the sources and the funding mechanisms, as well as the responsible bodies regarding the mobility of the teaching staff by means of the European Union programmes and the European Council training programmes are established within the legal framework and within the guidelines of the respective programmes.

The mobility and the exchange of the teaching staff within the cooperation programmes and the bi- and multilateral initiatives in the education and professional training field are regulated through the conventions concluded between the Romanian Government/the Ministry of National Education and the Governments/ministries of education from the respective countries. Depending on the specificity of the programme and the parties’ interests, the bi- and multilateral cooperation programmes may include the mobility of the teaching staff, the mutual granting of scholarships or grants, the organization of various conferences, seminars etc. 

The teaching staff in the pre-university education which attends continuous training programmes abroad may request the acknowledgement and equivalence of the respective programme as part of the mandatory periodical development.

During the participation at mobility and exchange activities, the teaching staff may be remunerated by the Romanian state or by the host country – according to the duration and the type of activity, as well as on the concrete agreement based upon which the activity is carried out. For example, during the mobilities performed in the European Union programmes in the education and professional training field, the salaries of the teaching staff are paid by the Romanian state, while the direct costs concerning the mobility (transportation expenses, allowance, schooling fees etc.) are covered according to the regulations of the respective programmes. At the same time, Romania has ratified with numerous states bilateral conventions for avoiding the double taxation of the citizens of the respective countries in the periods in which they are legally remunerated for various activities. These conventions explicitly stipulate the periods of tax exemption for the teaching staff that is remunerated only for teaching and/or research activities in the partner state.