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Romania:Main Types of Provision

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary



Funding lifelong learning (including adult learning) is achieved through public and private funds based on the public-private partnership, through funding and co-financing from employers, non-governmental organizations through grants from European programmes, through lifelong learning accounts and through the contribution of the beneficiaries.

Publicly subsidised provision is focusing on the following target groups:
  • young people and adults who have not completed compulsory education;
  • young people who have left education before obtaining a professional qualification and are not enrolled in any form of education or training;
  • graduates of non-professional education or those who have graduated high school or higher education qualifications in redundant fields or irrelevant for the labour market;
  • adults with special educational needs;
  • young people and adults who return after a period of work abroad;
  • young people and adults residents in economically and socially disadvantaged communities;
  • employees over 40 with low education, residents in urban and rural areas, low skilled or unskilled.

Provision to Raise Achievement in Basic Skills

Specifically for the completion of basic education, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research can approve the organisation of "A second chance" educational programmes in order to promote primary education (primary education includes the preparatory grade and the grades 1 - 4) for people who are 4 years older than the age corresponding to a particular grade and who, for various reasons, have not completed this level of education by the age of 14.

Moreover, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, collaborating with the authorities of the local public administration, through the School Inspectorates, can organise "A second chance" educational programmes to promote gymnasium education for people who are 4 years older than the age corresponding to a particular grade and who, for various reasons, have not completed secondary gymnasium education (lower secondary education or gymnasium education includes grades 5 – 8).

For people who are more than 3 years older than the age corresponding to a particular grade, compulsory education can be organised also as part-time education, in compliance with a methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. These types of programmes are designed for the so called population at risk: people who have never attended school, young people who dropped out school or people who completed primary education, but are not capable of reading or doing basic arithmetic at a satisfactory level.

Provision to Achieve a Recognised Qualification during Adulthood

Publicly subsidised provision to achieve recognised qualifications is offered within the lower secondary level of the Second Chance Programme. There is no centralised data on the types of qualifications provided by the Second Chance Schools. 

Project based funding (i.e. from the ESF fund) is also available to support and encourage adults to re-train and upgrade their skills. Centralised data is missing. 

Provision Targeting the Transition to the Labour Market

Training is a measure aimed at stimulating employment, alongside with professional information and guidance, work mediation, consultancy and assistance for starting up an independent activity or a business, salary increases and stimulation of employees’ mobility.

People who are looking for a job can participate in training activities organised by the National Employment Agency through its subordinated training centres and its regional centres for adult training, as well as by training providers in the public or private sector, authorised under the law.

The unemployed have the obligation to participate in the training programmes recommended by the County Employment Agency where they are registered, otherwise their unemployment benefit is withdrawn.

The services that precede layoff and that must be provided by the employers include, among others, the facilitation of employees’ participation in short-time training programmes.

Some categories of people, employed or unemployed, benefit from free training and other facilities.

The employers must take all necessary measures to ensure their employees’ access to training programmes.

The rights and obligations of employers and employees for the period when the employees participate in training programmes are stipulated in the collective and/or individual work contracts.

For the purpose of the training of their employees, the employers must consult the representatives of the unions or of the employees in order to develop training plans in compliance with the development programmes and the sector and territorial strategies.

Training for the unemployed is funded from the unemployment insurance budget and it is organised by the National Agency for Employment, being partially delivered through its own centres. In-service training for this target group is specifically governed by the Law 76/2002 on the unemployment insurance system and the stimulation of employment, with its subsequent changes and completions. The Law gives more importance to measures referring to the labour market and strengthens the ability of public employment services to use effectively this kind of measures. 

Provision of Liberal (Popular) Adult Education

No systematic provision of Liberal (Popular) Adult Education. Only project based funding is available for this type of provision.

Other Types of Publicly Subsidised Provision for Adult Learners

No additional types of publicly subsisted provision available.