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Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Romania is a Republic organized according to the principle of separation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers, within the frame of a constitutional democracy.

Parliament

The legislative body is the Parliament elected for a 4-year period through universal suffrage. The Parliament of Romania is bicameral and includes the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The election conditions and the number of the members of each chamber of the Parliament are established through the Election Law.

The Parliament passes constitutional laws (concerning the revision of the Constitution), organic laws (endorsed by the majority suffrage of each chamber) and ordinary laws.

Presidency

The President of Romania is elected for a 5-year period through universal suffrage. The President of Romania represents the Romanian State and is the warrant of the national independency, unity and territorial integrity of the country. The President of Romania guards the observance of the Constitution and the good functioning of the public authorities, acting as a mediator between the state powers and between the state and the society at large. The President of Romania nominates the candidate for the post of Prime Minister, on the basis of consultations with the political party or coalition holding the majority in the Parliament.

Government

The Government is the executive body, invested by the Parliament on the basis of the Governing Programme proposed by the candidate for Prime Minister. According to the Constitution, the investiture of the Prime Minister and of the Government requires the majority suffrage of the Parliament. Government Programme establishes the development strategy of the country for a 4-year period and reflects both the commonly assumed national priorities and the political platform of the party or the coalition holding the parliamentary majority. Education and training policy is an integral part of the Government Programme.

Central Public Administration

Central public administration comprises Ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government, Supreme Council of National Defence and various autonomous administrative authorities, established by organic laws. The number and the specific domains of competence of the ministries and autonomous administrative authorities are established by law. Education and training sector is managed at national level by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. In exercising its specific attributions, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research cooperates at the central level with other Ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government.

The Regional Public Administration

From the administrative-territorially point of view, Romania is organised in 41 counties. The capital city Bucharest counts as the 42 administrative-territorial unit. Functioning of administrative-territorial units is based on the principle of decentralisation and autonomy. In administrative-territorial units where the population belonging to a national minority is significant, the use of the national minority language in the local public administration is guaranteed by the Constitution.

Regional public administration is composed of County Councils, elected for a 4-year period and in charge with the coordination of the activities of the Local Councils, related to the provision of public services of county interest.

In each county and in the capital, Bucharest, a Prefect is appointed by the Government, as the representative of the Government in the county, having the responsibility to co-ordinate at this level the de-concentrated public services of ministries and of other bodies of public administration. There are no subordination rapports between Prefects and Chairs of County Council or the Local Councils, respectively Mayors.

To ensure balanced regional development and to fully make use of the social and economic potential of al the counties, 8 development regions were set up, each comprising several counties. Development regions are not administrative-territorial entities and do not have legal personality.

As a part of public services, education and training are coordinated by the County School Inspectorates, which have specific attributions regarding the development of education and training at regional level.