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Romania:Introduction

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

The 2013-2016 Governmental Program, the programmatic European documents in this area (Europe Strategy 2020, ET Framework 2020), the 2007 – 2013 National Development Plan and the 2013 – 2014 National Reform Program constitute the basis of the main strategic guidance of the Ministry of National Education.

Overall national education strategy and key objectives

Title:Development of the National Strategy on the Reduction of Early School Leaving (ESL)

Current status: completed, “Draft Strategy Framework of Reduce Early School Leaving" and "Strategically plan and monitor"; will be subject to public debate and adopted until the end of 2014

Time frame: 2013 – 2014

Responsible institution: Ministry of National Education – Intermediate Body of the Sector Operation Programme for the Development of Human Resources

Action content: The strategy will ensure the coordination of all national policies in the area and more European funds for projects aimed at reducing early school leaving. In the medium term, it will ensure a constant descendent curve of the ESL rate. The strategy will also result in the development of an efficient system for the collection and the analysis of data and information on participation in school.

Indicators of attainment: (i) preliminary draft of the strategy; (ii) draft strategy completed and submitted to public debate; (iii) strategy developed and approved.

General Objectives and Key Strategic Areas of the Draft Strategy:
  • Long-Term Objective: To contribute to the efforts of the Government of Romania to enhance economic growth, increase productivity, and foster social cohesion by reducing the share of young persons aged 18 to 24 years old who have finished no more than lower secondary education and are not involved in further education or training (early school leavers). The goal is to reduce this share at most 11.3% by 2020. 
  • Medium-Term Objective: To strengthen the government’s capacity to design, implement, and manage evidence-based policies that are both efficient and effective in reducing Early School Leaving by putting in place early warning and early intervention strategies both in education institutions and within economies. 
  • Short-Term Objective: To offer prevention, intervention and compensation programs that will begin to address the major causes of early school leaving, with a focus on reaching those youth already in the 18-24 age range.
The framework of this strategy is based on the main thematic areas of:
  • Prevention. Prevention Policies aim to reduce the risk of early school leaving before problems start. Such measures optimise the provision of education and training to support better learning outcomes and to remove obstacles to educational success. They aim to lay a solid foundation early, for children to develop their potential and to integrate well into schools. Prevention policy tools include: (a) Providing high-quality early childhood education and care; (b) Increasing the educational offer by providing education and training opportunities beyond the age of compulsory education; (c) Promoting active anti-segregation policies and providing additional support for schools in disadvantaged areas; (d) Emphasising the value of linguistic diversity and supporting children with a different mother tongue to improve their proficiency in the language of instruction; (e) Enhancing the involvement of parents; (f) Increasing the flexibility and permeability of educational pathways; (g) Strengthening high-quality vocational pathways and increasing their attractiveness and flexibility; (h) Social measures. 
  • Intervention. Intervention Policies aim to avoid ESL by improving the quality of education and training at the level of the educational institutions, by reacting to early warning signs and by providing targeted support to pupils or groups of pupils at risk of early school leaving. They address all educational levels, starting from early childhood education and care to upper secondary education.
    • (i) Intervention policies at the level of the school or training institution could include:
      • (a) Developing schools into learning organisations;
      • (b) Developing early-warning systems for pupils at risk;
      • (c) Networking with parents and other actors outside school;
      • (d) Supporting and empowering teachers in their work with pupils at risk.
    • (ii) Intervention policies at individual level could include:
      • (a) Mentoring;
      • (b) Tailoring teaching to pupils’ needs;
      • (c) Strengthening guidance and counseling;
      • (d) Ensuring that young people whose economic circumstances may result in their dropping out of education are given access to appropriate financial support. 
  • Compensation.Compensation Policies aim to help those who left school prematurely to re-engage in education, offering routes to re-enter education and training and gain the qualifications they missed. Compensation policies could include: (a) Successful second chance education programmes; (b) The provision of various routes back into mainstream education and training; (c) Recognising and validating prior learning; (d) Targeted individual support – remedial education. 
Source: [The World Bank, Advisory Services: Assistance to the Ministry of National Education]


Title: Completion of the National Lifelong Learning Strategy

Current status: completed, “Draft Strategy for Lifelong Learning" and "Mechanism to Monitor Lifelong Learning in Romania"; will be subject to public debate and adopted until the end of 2014

Time frame: 2013 – 2014

Responsible institution: Ministry of National Education – Intermediate Body of the Sector Operation Programme for the Development of Human Resources

Action content: The strategy will ensure the coordination of national policies in the area and more European funds for projects aimed at enhancing access to all forms of formal, informal and non-formal education, with positive implications for the work productivity and the competence level.

Indicators of attainment: (i) preliminary draft of the strategy; (ii) draft strategy completed and submitted to public debate; (iii) strategy developed and approved.

Strategic Vision and Goals:
  • (A)The strategic vision for lifelong learning in Romania encompasses both social and economic aspects of the benefits of lifelong learning. It is based on close dialogue between the Government of Romania and social partners as well as in the development of partnerships between all relevant stakeholders in the lifelong learning arena. Romania’s lifelong learning vision is to provide all individuals, throughout their lives, with opportunities to improve needed competencies for successful performances in the labor market and for constructive relationships in society.
  • (B) The strategic goals are to increase the participation in lifelong learning and improve the relevance of the education and vocational training systems for the labor market. The main strategic target for 2020 is at least 10% of the adult population (ages 25-64) participating in lifelong learning activities.
  • (C) The goals of the strategy for lifelong learning relate to both the inclusion and productivity agendas. The inclusion objective was determined considering the existing challenges of integrating out-of-the-labor force working age individuals as well as addressing a shrinking and aging population. The productivity objective was established to help the Government of Romania close the observed skills gaps and better compete with knowledge-based economies in a context of rapid technological changes.
This strategy is being prepared based on four pillars related to access to lifelong learning, its relevance, an attitude to learn always and everywhere, and partnerships with stakeholders. For each of these strategic pillars, a set of measures is being proposed.
  • (1) Access. Access to lifelong learning opportunities should be facilitated and be as wide as possible. For Romania to reach the proposed target of 10% by 2020, several measures should be planned and implemented, which include: (i) the recognition of prior learning, (ii) participation of underrepresented groups, (iii) utilization of flexible forms of service provision, (iv) broader access to mobility programs, as well as (v) other initiatives to stimulate the demand for lifelong learning, such as counseling support and financial incentives.
  • (2) Relevance. Lifelong learning should be relevant to individuals and the labor market. Accountability and quality assurance are two core aspects of the LLL strategy covered by the measures proposed in this pillar.
  • (3) Learning attitude. A favorable attitude towards learning should be promoted. The measures being proposed under this strategic pillar include the promotion of functional literacy and the development of key competencies, which are those mainly characterized by their ability to be used in new situations.
  • (4) Partnerships. Lifelong learning should be developed in close collaboration with social partners and all relevant stakeholders.
Source: [The World Bank, Advisory Services: Assistance to the Ministry of National Education]


Title: Development of the National Strategy for Romanian Tertiary Education

Current status: completed, “Final Draft of a Strategic Framework for Tertiary Education. Attainment Quality and Efficiency in Romania"; will be subject to public debate and adopted until the end of 2014

Time frame: 2013 – 2014

Responsible institution: Ministry of National Education – Intermediate Body of the Sector Operation Programme for the Development of Human Resources

Action content: The strategy will ensure the coordination of national policies in the area and more European funds for projects aimed at enhancing access to tertiary education and increasing its quality.

Indicators of attainment: (i) draft strategy completed and submitted to public debate; (ii) strategy developed and approved.

Long Term Objective: To contribute to the Government of Romania’s efforts to develop Romanian society, to energize economic growth, increase productivity, and promote social cohesion by investing in the human capital and research foundations of a knowledge-based economy.

Medium Term Objective: To strengthen the government’s capacity to design, implement and manage evidence-based policies seeking improved quality and relevance of the tertiary education sector and promote broader access by under-represented groups (including, but not limited to Roma, language minorities, rural students, disabled students, and women). 

Source: [The World Bank, Advisory Services: Assistance to the Ministry of National Education]


Title:Development of the Anti-corruption Strategy in Education

Current status: approved, in implementation

Time frame: 2013 –2015

Responsible institution: Ministry of National Education

Action content: It is a strategic document in the medium term, which creates the implementation framework of the measures for promoting integrity by means of the educational process, as well as at the level of institutions within the educational sector.

General objectives of the strategy:
  • (A) Preventing corruption at the educational sector level. Specific objectives: (i) Correction of specific vulnerabilities of the educational sector by systematically implementing preventive measures. (ii) Improving institutional transparency by increasing the availability rate of the open public data provided by the institutions in the educational sector. (iii) Strengthening the integrity of the personnel in the educational sector by promoting professional ethical standards and by stimulating the ethical conduct, the professionalism and the achieved results. (iv) Increasing the efficiency of the corruption prevention mechanisms in the field of public procurement and the use of public funds in general, at the educational sector level.
  • (B) Increasing the anti-corruption education rate. Specific objectives: (i) Increasing the anti-corruption education rate of the personnel in the educational institutions and of the personnel in the public administration with roles in education. (ii) Increasing the anti-corruption education rate at the level of education beneficiaries. (iii) Increasing public awareness with regard to the impact of the corruption phenomenon and the degree of involvement of the stakeholders and the civil society in the steps to prevent and combat corruption.
  • (C) Increasing public awareness with regard to the impact of the corruption phenomenon and the degree of involvement of the stakeholders and the civil society in the steps to prevent and combat corruption. Specific objectives: (i) Strengthening the role of the control, audit and integrity promotion structures within the Ministry of National Education and monitoring their activity. (ii) Intensifying the cooperation with the competent institutions in the field of combating corruption.
  • (D) Approving, implementing and updating the sectoral plan corresponding to the educational sector, as well as the development of the strategy and the corresponding plan implementation monitoring system. Specific objectives: (i) Approving, promoting and implementing the sectoral plan and the periodic evaluation of the preventive measures implementation rate. (ii) Monitoring the implementation of the sectoral plan and participating at SNA’s national monitoring system. 
Web page [only in Romanian language]: http://www.edu.ro/index.php/articles/c1093/


Title: The National Reform Programme 2014

Current status: approved

Time frame: July 2014– June 2015

Responsible institution: Government of Romania

Action content: It is framework-platform which presents the country's policies and measures to sustain growth and jobs and to reach the Europe 2020 targets. Quarterly progress reports are elaborated, which also include references to the status of the measures regarding CSR (Country Specific Recommendations).



Title: the National Qualifications Framework in Romania

Current status: completed and adopting, by a Government Decision (GD 918/2013)

Time frame: permanent

Responsible institution: Ministry of National Education, National Authority for Qualifications

Action content: The establishment of the national qualifications system will integrate all national qualifications sub-systems, adjacent instruments (qualifications registries) and all institutions with responsibilities in the area of education and training.
The National Authority for Qualifications made a first draft of the referencing report of the National Qualifications Framework to the European Qualifications Framework which was presented within the advisory group regarding the European Qualifications Framework existing at the European Commission level in June 2014. The final report, which will also include the remarks of the advisory group members, will be presented at the work meeting in October 2014.
According to Government Decision No.  607/2014 on the approval of the content and format of the diplomas that will be issued to the graduates of the Ist cycle – Bachelor studies, additional information is inserted in the Diploma Supplement regarding the competences acquired by the graduates. 
The National Qualifications Registry comprised of the National Qualifications Registry in the Higher Education and the National Registry of Professional Qualifications is being implemented and is going to be approved by Government Decision. 

Web page [only in Romanian language]: https://isj.educv.ro/sites/default/files/H.G.918_2013.pdf


Title: The strategy of professional training in Romania for the period 2014 - 2020

Current status: draft

Time frame: 2014 - 2020

Responsible institution: Ministry of National Education, NCDVTE   

Action content: The strategy is the framework document for the policies in the initial and continuous professional training field – considered as being essential factors of the national economy development in the context of the European economy and of the globalization. The professional training strategy proposes the development of a competitive system, which is to provide a relevant and fast response to the requirements of the economy, in a pro-active approach and by measures implemented in various partnerships

Indicators of attainment: (i) preliminary draft of the strategy; (ii) draft strategy completed and submitted to public debate; (iii) strategy developed and approved.

The professional training strategy is developed around four key concepts:  “Relevance”, “Access and participation”, “Quality” and “Innovation and cooperation”

Strategic objectives:
Strategic objective 1. It aims to ensure the relevance of the FP systems with regard to the demand and the trends of the labour market and actually expresses the philosophy of developments in the professional training by which this sector makes an important contribution to the national and European – local - regional economic development. The strategy will consider the regional character of the economic development and the existing disparities in terms of access and participation to FPA.

Strategic objective 2. It defines the way in which the professional training system addresses to the direct beneficiaries, either by initial training or by continuous training, actually encouraging lifelong learning. The strategy will try to provide an appropriate response to the persons, employers and communities’ needs with regard to quality professional training for the labour market. By the directions for action corresponding to this strategic objective we aim a significant contribution to the achievement of the major objective of the EU2020 Strategy, namely the increase of the employment rate, with a target of 75%.

Strategic objective 3. It considers the quality assurance requirements for the entire professional training system, an essential requirement for an acknowledged contribution to the increase of the national and European economy competitiveness, which may be achieved only by processes, systems and mechanisms assured in terms of quality, in an approach that is harmonized with the European quality systems.

Strategic objective 4. It highlights the essential features of all the actions in the professional training sector which, in order to be efficient and relevant, have to be performed by cooperation, within functional partnerships at all the action levels, and with the philosophy of encouraging creativity and of the innovation valorisation. These principles are present and pervade all the concrete priorities for action, but their defining within a distinctive objective will emphasize their strategic importance in the current context.

Source: The Ministry of National Education, 2014.


Title: The development of the administrative capacity of the Ministry of National Education by implementing the strategic management and improving the leadership of the institution 

Current status: ongoing

Time frame: 2012 - 2015

Responsible institution: Ministry of National Education   

Action content: By implementing the project’s activities, the efficiency of the pre-university educational system will be improved by stimulating the leadership and the coordination and collaboration between the subordinate agencies, simultaneously with the elaboration of a new structure of MNE that should impose the empowerment and focus more on the strategic function, recommending the balancing of the proportion between the operational and the strategic management and a greater harmonization between MNE’s strategic objectives and the available resources. The modification of the conditions influencing the organisational culture shall also be made by stimulating leadership, by reviewing the authority delegation procedures and others.  

The estimated results shall produce the organizational restructuring, the modification of the type of strategic management and of human resources, of the leadership, as well as the modification of the organizational culture.
The project’s implementation will determine the increase of the quality of the Romanian education and professional training system, by increasing the capacity of formulating the educational policies and especially by creating the premises for making the use of human and financial resources more efficient.

General objective: the sustainable improvement of the central administration’s capacity in the education and professional training field, by optimizing the structures; the development, testing/steering and implementing the management tools, processes and practices; the elaboration and development of the training programmes that should contribute to the development of the managerial skills and the leadership of the operating and management personnel.

Specific objectives:
  • Performing a preliminary institutional diagnosis at the MNE level for establishing the organizational and system needs 
  • Elaborating a comprehensive study on: the organizational culture and the strategic management/ leadership at the level of MNE and the subordinated institutions including the county school inspectorates, the current working practices in the ministry and the training needs of the personnel 
  • Elaborating the Strategy for modernizing MNE and the subordinated institutions, including the county school inspectorates  
  • Elaborating the tools, the indicators systems, the procedures and methodologies that will improve and update the knowledge and skills of the MNE personnel and the personnel in subordinated institutions, including the county school inspectorates Training the personnel of MNE and in the subordinated institutions for developing, testing/steering, transferring and implementing specific working tools, procedures, methodologies 
The project is co-funded by the Operational Programme for Administrative Capacity Development from the European Social Fund and benefits from the consultancy services of the World Bank.

Source: the Ministry of National Education, 2014.

Overview of the education reform process and drivers

For the school year 2014-2015 the following priorities of the education and professional training system are aimed at:

A. Pre-academic education

  • Ensuring equal opportunities for access and participation in education for every child in Romania 
  • Reviewing the curriculum and modernizing the evaluation. Elaborating new school curriculum and textbooks (including in digital format)
  • Quality assurance for all education levels and forms
  • Developing the professional and technical education; correlating the education and professional training system with the labour market. Introducing the 3-year dual type vocational education for the VIIIth grade graduates 
  • Supporting the education in the national minorities languages
  • Expanding the use of new technologies
  • Increasing the autonomy of education units; encouraging partnerships, the participation of the community representatives in the life of the school and intensifying the social dialogue
  • Improving teacher training
  • Preventing corruption and fighting violence in schools

B. Higher education

  • Increasing the access and participation in the higher education
  • Ensuring the higher education and the academic research autonomy
  • Increasing the competitively of the Romanian universities
  • Correlating the higher education study programmes with the labour market needs
  • Improving the quality management within the higher education
  • Developing the European and international dimension of the Romanian higher education

C. Developing European and international cooperation 

D. Increasing the absorption rate of structural funds

E. Improving the educational infrastructure

F. Encouraging lifelong learning