This page was last modified on 19 January 2017, at 16:52.

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

The teaching profession in Romania is a profession regulated by law. Consequently, for a given educational level, teachers work under similar conditions across the whole country and variations from one job to another are rather minor.

According to the National Education Law no.1/2011, with subsequent amendments, the initial training for teaching positions in preuniversity education includes:

  1. initial training, theoretical, in specialty, achieved in universities, within programs accredited under the law
  2. teaching (didactic) master lasting two years
  3. practical training lasting one school year, performed in a school under the supervision of a mentor teacher. 

By exception to provisions of law stated above, the staff training in early preschool education (children from birth to 3 years), for the children-educator position, is achieved through pedagogical high-schools.

Also, the staff training for preschool education (working with children between 3 and 6 years old), for the position of educator and in primary education (working with pupils in preparatory class and class I-IV) for the position of school teacher is achieved both by pedagogical high-school and by universities, specialization Preschool and Primary Education Pedagogy.

Currently, in pre-school and primary education, there are teachers who have completed the following routes of initial training:

  • Pedagogical high school (lasting 4-5 years)
  • Post secondary school (lasting 2 years)
  • Pedagogical Institute (lasting 3 years)
  • Pedagogical University College (lasting 3 years)
  • Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences – Preschool and Primary Education Pedagogy specialization (lasting 3 years).

The initial, theoretical, in specialty and psycho-pedagogical training programs are periodically accredited and evaluated by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, through ARACIS or other authorized bodies, according to the law.

Registration for the practical training stage within the initial training is conditioned by achieving the bachelor's degree and the teaching (didactic) master degree.

Students and university graduates who choose the teaching profession are required to graduate a teaching master lasting 2 years.

Students who attend teaching master courses accredited by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research in a public institution may benefit of scholarships funded from the public budget.

In order to achieve the practical training within the teaching master, a permanent network of schools is created, based on framework agreements signed between units/educational institutions that provide initial training and school inspectorates, under conditions determined by order of the Minister of Education.

Practical training within the teaching master may take place under the form of a stage period abroad within an European Union program - a dedicated component for initial teacher training - a period certified through the Europass Mobility document.

The study programs of the teaching (didactic) master degree are developed based on professional standards for teaching positions, approved by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and they are accredited under the law.

Occupying of a teaching position for the practical training period lasting one school year is done by: 

  • contest on vacant/reserved positions
  • appointment, by the County/Bucharest School Inspectorate, on positions remained vacant following the contest.

People in the practical training period lasting one school year are applied all the legislation in force, accordingly to their teaching position temporarily employed on.

Only persons who fulfil the above conditions are considered qualified for the concerned teaching positions.

In special circumstances, the teaching positions in preuniversity education can be occupied for limited periods of time by unqualified personnel. 

Institutions, Level and Models of Training

The higher education mission is to generate and transfer knowledge to society through: 

  • initial and continuous training at university level, in order of personal development, of individual professional insertion and of satisfying the need of competence in socio-economic environment
  • scientific research, development, innovation and technology transfer, by individual and collective creation, in sciences, engineering, arts, letters, by ensuring the performance and the physical and sports development, as well as the valorisation and dissemination of their results.

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research is a public authority empowered to track and control the application and compliance of legal regulations in the field of higher education and to apply sanctions, if appropriate. The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research also controls the way the universities exercise their autonomy, they assume their mission and they exercise their public responsibility.

The university autonomy is guaranteed by the Constitution.

Academic freedom is guaranteed by law.

Higher education institutions are organized and function independently of any ideological, political or religious interferences. 

The university autonomy entitles the academic community to establish its own mission, institutional strategy, structure, activities, its own organization and functioning, human and material resources management, in strict compliance with the legislation in force. The fundamental aspects of the university autonomy are expressed in the University Charter, approved by the university senate, in strict accordance with the legislation in force.

To achieve the objectives arising from its mission, any institution of higher education may include the following organizational components:

  • faculties
  • departments
  • institutes,centers or laboratories
  • units of designing
  • consultancy centers
  • university clinics
  • workshops and art studios
  • theatres, museums
  • centers for lifelong training of human resources
  • microproduction and services units
  • experimental stations, or
  • other entities for production activities and transfer of knowledge and technology. 

The faculty is the functional unit that develops and manages curricula. The Faculty is related to one or more fields of science, arts or sports.

The initial training for all teaching positions in Romaniais based on a parallel model (concurrent) - meaning that education and training in specialty are combined with professional training for the teaching career within the same educational sequence. 

For teachers in preuniversity education, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research may equate, through a specific methodology, the short-term higher education, achieved through the college lasting 3 years or the pedagogical institute lasting 3 years, with the first cycle of university studies with bachelor's degree, according to the law.

Admission Requirements

Only high school graduates with a baccalaureate diploma or equivalent may be admitted to higher education (cycle I of university studies – bachelor's degree).

For the cycle II of university studies (Master's degree) only graduates with bachelor's degree or equivalent are admitted. 

Doctoral studies represent cycle III of university studies and allow acquiring a qualification of level 8 of EQF/CEC and from the National Qualifications Framework. The admission requirements are: master's degree or its equivalent.

Higher education institutions establish the admittance methodology for each cycle, according to general criteria established by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. 

The selection and admittance procedure in cycle I of university studies may be based on:

  • the average obtained by candidates at the baccalaureate examination and at various subjects studied during high school,
  • as well as on the grade obtained at the admittance examination entirely organized by the higher educational institution. In the case of organizing of an admittance exam, the higher education institutions must take into account the high school curriculum for the subjects of the admittance examination, as well as the alternative textbooks approved for use in secondary education at the respective disciplines.

Candidates may take the admittance exam in the language they studied the respective subjects.

In public higher education institutions, education may be:

  • tuition free (for the number of students annually approved by the Government), and
  • tuition with fee. The fee is set by the university senate, according to the law. 

In private higher education institutions, the education is based on a fee. The fee is set by the Board, according to the law. 

Higher education institutions have autonomy in determining the amount of fees and have the obligation to communicate to all those interested, including on the university's website. 

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research establishes every year the general criteria for admittance without examination on funded places to students who obtained during high school remarkable results in national and/or international contests.

Curriculum, Level of Specialisation and Learning Outcomes

Curriculas are established independently of the higher education institutions, according to the national strategies for the development of higher education and to the national academic standards.

The topic for initial training courses for the teaching profession, the number of allocated hours, the number of credits and the examination form are set by OMECT no. 4316/2008.

Thus, within the module I, the compulsory subjects are:

  • Educational Psychology
  • Fundamentals of Pedagogy
  • Theory and Methodology of Curriculum
  • Theory and Methodology of Training
  • Theory and Methodology of Assessment
  • Classroom Management
  • Subject Didactics
  • Computer Assisted Instruction
  • Teaching Practice in preuniversity education.

In the case of module II, the compulsory subjects are:

  • Psychopedagogy for teenagers, youths and adults
  • Design and management of educational programs
  • Didactics of the domain and developments in the subject didactics
  • Pedagogical practice in high school, post-secondary or university education.
  • Besides the compulsory subjects, there are two packages of optional subjects of which one subject for study is chosen (e.g., Sociology of Education, Intercultural Education, Counselling and Guidance, Educational Communication, etc.).

In the case of teachers in pre-school and primary education, the initial training is organized within the faculties of education sciences, through the specialization of Pedagogy of primary and preschool education.

Prior to the Bologna Process, the initial training was organized in Universitary Colleges lasting three years.

In terms of developing the curriculum for the initial training of teachers, the following clarifications can be made: 

The curricula for teacher training for pre-school and primary education are defined at the level of each department within the faculties of education sciences.

The initial training provided by these departments includes both:

  • general courses, and
  • courses & practical activities for pedagogical training.

The curriculum for the initial training of teachers in secondary and tertiary education is developed by each department of teacher training within universities, based on the provisions of the OMECT no. 4316/2008.

For each of the studying disciplines, a fiche of the discipline is filled describing the objectives or competences targeted to be obtained through the respective discipline, the course topics and for the applications, the number of allocated hours, the examination type, bibliographic recommendations.

Teacher Educators

The persons who provide teaching and training activities within initial/continuing education and vocational training are professors in higher education.

Qualifications, Evaluation and Certificates

At present, the initial training for the teaching career of the secondary education personnel is provided by specialized structures within universities (Departments for Teacher Training).

In this context, acquiring pedagogical competences is carried out in modules, through theoretical and practical training, throughout the years of academic study, being based on a parallel model (concurrent).

Promoting vocational training provided in this manner is attested through a graduation certificate issued by the higher education institution.

Alternatively, higher education graduates who choose the teaching career have the opportunity to attend DPPD courses after employment. Thus, the initial training for the teaching career is done in parallel with the scientific one - in the specialty domain over the years of study in the university.

Students’ assessment in higher education is done through periodic exams (summative) organized for each subject in curriculum. Assessments are performed in the form of:

  • oral
  • written, and
  • practical tests, and
  • in some cases, in the form of project presentations.

The evaluation criteria for students' academic and professional performances are established by the institutions of higher education, accordingly to the university autonomy.

Specific requirements and evaluation criteria for each discipline are set in the curriculum (in the introductory part at each discipline).

Evaluation of the students’ performance in higher education is materialized by grades from 1 to 10.

Examination of students for each discipline is performed by a committee which includes the professor who lectures the respective discipline, assisted by at least another specialist in the same discipline or department.

After each examination, the grades obtained by students are registered in the students’ notebooks and in the official documents of the institution.

Alternative Training Pathways

Not applicable.