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Romania:Historical Development

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

The Romanians lived in three neighbouring historical regions: Walachia, Moldavia and Transylvania. The process of the unification of the Romanians from the three historical regions led to the foundation of the Romanian State. On 24 January 1859 Walachia and Moldavia unified, is founded what historians refer to as the Modern National Romanian State. The unification process came to an end after the First World War with Transylvania unifying with Walachia and Moldavia on 1 December 1918 – the date of the foundation of the National Unitary Romanian State. 

The first Constitution was promulgated in 1866 and then successively changed in 1923 and 1938. Until the Second World War, Romania was a Constitutional Monarchy with a market-economy and important political and economic relations with numerous European countries. In 1940, due to the historical context, the 1938 Constitution was suspended and military dictatorship was established until 1945. 

After the Second World War, under the military pressure of the former Soviet Union, the Monarchy was abolished on 30 December 1947 and Romania became a Republic with a communist regime. A new Constitution was promulgated in 1948 and then successively changed in 1952 and 1965. Society and economy were forced to transform according to imported patterns. Unilateral state property, central rigid planning and state-controlled market leaded to an unbalanced and inefficient economy with major repercussions on social welfare. Exercising most of the basic civil rights was restricted for the majority of the population. 

The effects of the economic and social disaster built up in the late 80s leading in December 1989 to an open protest of the population. The protest transformed into a Popular Revolution has as effect, on 22 December 1989, the overthrowing of the communist regime and proclamation of democracy. 

Starting 1990 Romania’s efforts in the transition into a democratic society involved shift in two domains: in political life – moving from a totalitarian to a democratic government; in economy – shifting from planned economy to a market economy, based on competition. 

A new Constitution was passed in a referendum on 8 December 1991, providing a new legal framework for political pluralism and private initiative. As a result of political, social and economic developments since 1991 and the perspectives for accession to the European Union, the Constitution was amended through a referendum, in October 2003. 

After the first free elections, organised in 1992, the political scene started to resolve slowly. A specific characteristic of the Romanian political scene is the presence of a number of political parties organised on ethnic criteria – like the Democratic Union of the Hungarians in Romania (Uniunea Democrată a Maghiarilor din România – UDMR) or the Democratic Forum of the Germans in Romania (Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România – FDGR). Furthermore, regardless the results of the elections, the presence in the Parliament of the representatives of national minorities is guaranteed by the Constitution. 

Regarding the economy, the most important strategic goal of the reform process is the structural reform by reducing the role of the State and stimulating private initiative. New financial mechanisms have begun to stimulate economic growth. 

Joining the European Union was largely supported and it has become a national priority. Negotiations for the accession of Romania to the European Union were opened in February 2000. The 1st of January 2007 became the date of accession of Romania to the European Union.