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Romania:Higher Education Funding

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), the public high education system is free, for the amount of students approved by the Government, and  liable to fee-paying withinthe limits of the Law.

The education in the higher education system is free of charge, within the limit of the student places allocated each year by the Government, the rest of the student places, also approved by Government Decision, being available by paying  tuition. The amount of the respective tuiton fee is set by the University Senate, in compliance with the legal provisions. Higher education institutions have autonomy in deciding tuition feeand have the obligation to inform all the interested people on this subject, including on the university site.

A person may benefit from financing from the budget for a single graduation (B.A. or B.Sc.) programme, for a single master’s degree programme, and for a single Ph.D. degree programme.

According to the legal provisions in force, higher education institutions may charge candidates with registration fees for the admission process, in the quantum approved by the university Senate. In their own methodologies, the university senates may decide upon fee exemption or reduction.

In the free public high education system there are fees for: the extention of the period of schooling provided by the law, admission, registrations, re-registrations, re-examinations, and other forms of evaluation which exceed the provisions of an institution’s  education plans. Also,other activities which are not included in the education plan, compliant to the methodology approved by the university Senate, are subject to be charged. 

The financing of the public high education system is ensured from public funds in keeping with the following demands:

  • to consider the high education system as being public responsibility and the overall education system as being a national priority;
  • to assure higher education quality standards according to the European Higher Education Area for training human resources and personal development as citizens of a democratic society based on knowledge;
  • to assure human resources professional development in accordance with labour market diversification;
  • to assure the development of higher education and scientific research and artistic creation at leading universities to integrate the global scientific life.

The annual budget execution of higher education institutions is made public.

Public higher education funding can be realised on a contract basis between the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and each higher education institution, with the contribution of other ministries in the case of those higher education institutions that prepare professionals for the ministries concerned, and other sources, including loans and foreign aid.

All resources of financing public universities become their own income.

Public private and confessional higher education institutions can receive donations from home and abroad, in compliance with the legislation in force.

Funding

Public higher educational institutions operate as institutions financed with funds from the state budget, extra-budgetary revenues and other sources, in compliance with the law.

The revenues of such institutions are made of amounts of money allocated from the budget of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, on a contractual basis, for the basing financing, complementary financing and supplementary financing, achieving investment objectives, funds allocated on a competitive basis for institutional development, for funds allocated on a competitive basis for inclusion, student scholarships and social protection, as well as from own revenues, interests, donations, sponsorship, and fees charged in compliance with the law, from Romanian or foreign natural persons and legal entities, as well as from other sources. Such revenues are used by higher educational institutions, under the terms of university autonomy, in order to achieve their objectives within the state policy on academic education and research.

Additional financing from public funds is granted by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research to encourage excellence for educational institutions and programmes, both for public universities, as well as private ones.

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research will provide basic funding for public universities through research grants based on the equivalent average cost per student, per study area, per study cycles, and per tuition language. Study grants will be allocated to priority areas that ensure sustainable development and a competitive society.

The basic funding is carried out on a multi-annual basis, and is provided throughout an education cycle. Complementary funding is granted by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research through:

  • subsidies for accommodation and boarding;
  • funds allocated based on priorities and specific norms for endowments and other costs of investments and refurbishments;
  • funds allocated on competitive basis for academic scientific research.

University funding is based on an institutional agreement between the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and universities, as follows:

  • an institutional agreement for the basic financing, for the student scholarship and social protection fund, for the institutional development fund, as well as for the financing of the investment objectives;
  • a complementary agreement for the financing of refurbishments, for endowments and other investment costs, as well as for subsidies for accommodation and boarding;
  • the institutional and complementary agreements are periodically audited by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and by CNFIS (the National Council for the Financing of Higher Education).

​The scholarships and the social protection funds are alloted in accordance with the number of full-time students sponsored from the state budget.

The funding for the B.A./B.Sc., master’s, and Ph.D. programmes in state higher education institutions is carried out by using a methodology drafted by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Reseach in conjunction with CNFIS, methodology that subsequently is approved by order by the Minister of National Education and Scientific Research.

Starting with the academic year 2015-2016, higher education institutions (HEIs) may establish colleges of post-secondary education that are funded from the state budget at the cost level pertaining to pre-university education.

Financial Autonomy and Control

University autonomy is guaranteed by the Constitution. Academic freedom is guaranteed by law.Higher education institutions are organized and operated independent of any ideological, political or religious interference. The university autonomy gives the right to the academic community to establish its own mission, institutional strategy, structure, activities, organization and operation, and to manage their own material and human resources in strict compliance with the legislation in force. The fundamental aspects of the university autonomy are expressed in the university charter, approved by the university’s senate, in strict compliance with the legislation in force. The university autonomy is exercised only with the condition of assuming public responsibility. In higher education institutions the freedom of research is ensured in terms of setting the subjects, choosing the methods and procedures and capitalizing on the results, in compliance with the law. In higher education institutions it is forbidden to endanger the right to free expression of scientific and artistic opinions in any way. Students’ right to choose courses and specialisations freely is guaranteed, in compliance with the legal provisions and with the schooling plans. The management structures and positions of the private and religious universities, the attributions, the manner of establishment as well as other considerations related to their status are set in compliance with the provisions of this law, with the approval of the founders upon their consultation, and with the approval of the university’s senate.

The rectors of public universities, by institutional agreement concluded with the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Reseach, are directly responsible for the institution’s resource allocation, priority to the high-performance departments.

The remaining funds at the end of the year from the budget execution stipulated in the institutional agreements and also the funds related to academic scientific research  as well as  the extrabudgetary revenue, remain available to universities and are included in the revenues and expenditures budget of the institution, without amounts payable to the state budget and without affecting allocations from the state budget for next year.

Public and private universities have their own assets, which they manage in compliance with the law.

The State exercises his powers in higher education through Parliament, Government and the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Reseach.

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Reseach is a state authority and is qualified to follow up and control the enforcement and observance of the legal regulations in the field of higher education and, if necessary, to apply sanctions. Also, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Reseach controls the way in which the universities exercise their university autonomy and their public responsibility and assume the general mission and their own mission.

Fees within Public Higher Education

Higher education is free of charge for state funded students; however the institutions may collect fees from these students for application and registration, and for the repetition of examinations.

The students places financed from the state budget are allocated to the public higher education institutions through Ministerial Order.

At the same time, public higher education institutions are authorised to accept a number of students exceeding the number of placements financed from the state-budget, subject to students’ agreement to support their costs for the education. The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research approves every year the exact number of fee-paying student places for each public higher education institution, based on the propositions of the university senates and according to the national standards for academic evaluation and accreditation.

The tuitions fees are established by the university senates according to the costs of the education provided.

According to the provisions of the Education Law, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Reseach establishes the number of financed-places for post-university studies, while the universities senates establish autonomously the number of paid-places. In this case too, the tuition fees are established by the university senates according to the costs of the education provided.

Higher education institutions can request a registration fee from the candidates, according to the provisions of the law.

The registration fee is meant to cover the costs necessary to organise and proceed with the admission. The quantum of the registration fee is established by the university senates and certain exemption rules may be devised and applied.Students accommodated in university campuses have to partially cover the necessary costs. However, in a rather important number of cases the scholarships granted to the students partially or totally cover the accommodation costs.

Financial Support for Learners' families

No provision.

Financial Support for Learners

The forms of support for the teaching staff, students and researchers with outstanding performance include:

  • study or research grants at universities in the country or abroad, granted through competition;
  • grants for performing and completing research, including PhD thesis;
  • approval certain flexible educational routes, that allow speeding up university studies;
  • creating support instruments and mechanisms for their professional insertion in the country, so that they capitalize at a high level both on their native talent and on the skills acquired by training.

Students receive performance or merit scholarships, to encourage excellence, and social grants, to support low-income students. The minimum amount of social scholarships is proposed by CNFIS on an annual basis, by taking into account the fact that it must cover minimum food and accommodation. Universities may supplement the scholarship fund from own extra-budgetary funds.

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), Art. 224, the Romanian State may grant scholarships for the support of Romanian citizens who study in neighbouring countries and of Romanian citizens who live abroad on a permanent basis, and who wish to study within Romanian public educational facilities and institutes.

The Romanian state shall grant yearly, by government decision, a number of scholarships for the tuition of foreign students. These scholarships shall be granted only to those universities and study programmes that meet the highest quality standards, whether public or private.

The students benefit from free health care and psychological assistance at the university medical centres and psychologists’, or state medical centres and hospitals, in compliance with the law.

During the academic year the students who are up to 26 years old benefit from a discount of 50% of the fare of local public transport, domestic transport by road, railway and ship. Orphan students or those coming from foster care benefit from free fare on the means of transport set by order of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

Within the limit of the approved budget, the students benefit from  a discount of 75% of the access to museums, concerts, theatre performances, opera, movies and other cultural and Sports events organized by public institutions, within the limit of the budgets. Romanian citizen students that study abroad with a scholarship granted by the Romanian state, benefit from free access to museums, concerts, theatre performances, opera, movies and other cultural and sports events organised by public institutions, which are performed in Romania.

Higher education institutions have the right to grant, in addition to the approved number of students to enrol, at least one place free of tuition to the graduates with a baccalaureate diploma coming from foster care, under the conditions set by the senate of the university.

Candidates coming from environments with high socioeconomic risk or socially marginalized – Roma people, high school graduates in the rural environment or cities with less than 10,000 inhabitants – may benefit from a number of guaranteed budgeted places, in compliance with the law.

Within the limit of their own financial resources public higher education institutions ensure meals, accommodation and transport costs for the intensive practical training of the students, for periods foreseen in the curricula, in case the practical training takes places outside of the respective university centre.

All the study diplomas issued by the university, as well as those attesting the student status (certificates, books, identification cards) are issued free of charge.

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research may grant yearly scholarships for university or postgraduate studies abroad, from funds set up for this purpose. These scholarships are granted following a competition organized at national level.

Students have to cover for the costs of the meals and accommodation provided within the universities campuses. Nevertheless, through the complementary funding, part of these costs is covered from the state budget.

Furthermore, students may receive scholarships on the basis of contracts signed with economic agents and other legal and natural persons, as well as study loans extended by banks according to the provisions of the law. In practice, the latter is at its beginning, and Romanian banks have not been too sensitive to existing requests so far.

All scholarships are subject to indexation according to the current inflation rate and, overall, the minimum quanta of students’ scholarships have to cover the accommodation and meal costs in the universities campuses.

Subject to the provisions of the law and the conditions established by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and the university senates, a number of students attending pos-university studies benefit yearly of scholarships. In most cases these scholarships are granted based on competitions regulated by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and the university senates.

Private Education

The financing sources of private higher educational institutions and private higher confessional educational institutions include:

  • the amounts of money contributed by their founders;
  • tuition fee and other educational fees;
  • sponsorships, donations, grants, financing granted on a competitive basis, exploitation of the research, development and innovation sources, and other legal sources.

In the private higher education institutions, a tuition fee is charged. The amount of the respective fee is set by the Board of Directors, in compliance with the law.

Private and confessional higher education institutions can receive donations from home and abroad, in compliance with the legislation in force.

Private universities have their own assets, which they manage in compliance with the law. Private universities are holding ownership rights or other real rights they have over their assets, in the conditions provided by the law.