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Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Academic guidance

In most cases, educational guidance during primary education is ensured by the class teacher working closely with the children’s parents and the school psychologist. The National Curriculum includes the curricular area Counselling and Guidance, dedicated to the educational guidance of pupils. In the case of primary education, the curriculum frameworks stipulate the possibility to allocate, within the school-based curriculum, an hour per week for counselling and guidance. There is also a central curricula offer for this curricular area, approved by an Order of the Minister of Education.

At secondary level, the educational/vocational guidance is ensured through the National Curriculum and delivered by the class teacher, together with pupils’ parents and the school counsellor. The National Curriculum includes the curricular area Counselling and Guidance. The curriculum frameworks allocate one hour per week to this curricular area, for all phases at secondary level (gimnaziu, liceu, arts and trades school, additional year).

For this curricular area there is also a central offer with curricula approved by an order of the minister of education which establish for each phase (gimnaziu, liceu, arts and trades school, additional year) the educational objectives and contents, providing at the same time methodological suggestions which guide the activity of teachers in order to reach the objectives/ to develop the specific skills in this particular curricular area.

The County School Inspectorates organise a 5-day fair known as The Fair of Your Chances every year. The schools display all the information on their current educational offer (enrolment quota, specialisation of studies, school-based curriculum, etc.) as well as on the quality of the education they provide (educational conditions, resources, internal and external efficiency, relationships established with industry, etc.). School management teams and class teachers facilitate and organize visits for their pupils to the fair in support of their educational guidance.

Student guidance and counselling in vocational and technical education is ensured through:

  • The subject Vocational Guidance and Counselling, for the technological path, grades 11 and 12 – direct qualification route, and grades 12 and 13 – progressive qualification route;
  • Offices for psychological and pedagogical assistance, organised within schools with more than 800 students and subordinated to the County Centres of Psychological and Pedagogical Assistance (Schools with less than 800 students access psychological and pedagogical assistance services provided by other schools.);
  • County centres of educational assistance and resources, organised in each county;
  • Class teachers’ activity, guided by the regulations in force, in relation with parents and representatives of education institutions and local businesses;
  • Students’ practical training, conducted in partnership with local businesses, where a major role is played by tutors and students’ direct relation with employees.

Psychological counselling

Children attending pre-primary education benefit from free medical and psychological assistance in consulting rooms in schools or in general state hospitals.
Health care of children in pre-primary education is ensured either through schools’ medical units (existing mostly in urban areas) or through public medical units and is free of charge (including medication). Kindergartens with prolonged and weekly programme employ nurses to ensure the first-hand health care of the children.

Health care of children in primary education is ensured either through schools’ medical units (existing mostly in urban areas) or through public medical units and is free of charge (including medication).

The Centers for psycho-pedagogical assistance – Centre Judeţene de Asistenţă Psihopedagogică are organised at the level of each county/ Bucharest as Pre-tertiary education complementary units subordinated to the County School Inspectorates/ School Inspectorate of Bucharest.

In each school with more than 800 pupils psycho-pedagogical assistance units can be organised, according to the existing resources and needs. Schools with less than 800 pupils apply to a psycho-pedagogical assistance unit organised in another school. Psycho-pedagogical assistance centers – Centre Judeţene de Asistenţă Psihopedagogică and units ensure through individual and collective activities the psycho-pedagogical monitoring and counselling of the pupils as well as guidance of the teachers and pupils’ parents. In cooperation with the schools and the local community the psycho-pedagogical assistance centers and units also organise school and professional guidance of the pupils, information and documentation activities, etc.

Career guidance

The tutor teacher has the responsibility to plan, organise and accomplish the activities for the counselling and guidance classes – based on the existing guiding lines, on consultations with the parents and the pupils and according to the pupils’ age and particularities. Mostly for pupils attending final grades of a given education level, the activities accomplished during the counselling and guidance classes include meetings and debates with representatives of educational institutions and local employers, visits to various institutions, application and interpretation of personality and aptitude tests, etc.

Education institutions send on regular basis detailed information on their educational offer, usually through their teachers/professors. On these occasions the schools managements organise meetings with all the pupils attending a given final grade. Specifically for T/VET, the practical training of the pupils performed on a contract basis at different local employers has an important role in their vocational guidance. During the practical training pupils get in touch directly with the employees, acknowledge the work conditions provided understand the requirements of the work and the requested level of initial training get first-hand information on the income and on other details. The efficiency of this guidance is proved by the fact that an important number of the T/VET graduates get their first job in the same firms where they accomplished their practical training. Training-employment and school-industry relations are also ensured through the consultative bodies working at the level of the school and of the county.