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Romania:Glossary

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Accreditation

the process whereby the concerned educational unit/institution/organization acquires, based on the external evaluation conducted in accordance with this law, the right to organize entrance examinations, carry out the learning process, organize end-ofstudy exams and issue diplomas and certificates acknowledged by the Ministry of Education. 

Accredited study program 

the study program that fulfills the minimal requirements provided by accreditation standards and performance indicators.

Authorized study program 

the evaluated study program which was approved and which fulfills the provisional authorization conditions.

Dual education 

is a form of organization of the vocational education, which is performed based on an employment contract and combines the professional training which is organized by a company, with the training organized within an educational unit. The responsibility regarding the organization and functioning is shared by the company and the educational unit. 

Education center

an educational unit organized by the Ministry of Education or by nongovernmental organizations, in partnership with the Ministry of Education meant for the recovery, compensation, rehabilitation and school and social integration of various categories of children/pupils/young people with deficiencies.

Full-time, part-time, distance learning

organization forms of didactic processes involving: a) compulsory attendance for full-time learning; b) replacement of teaching hours with individual study activities and periodical, usually weekly meetings with pupils/students/course attendants in order to carry out the compulsory applicative activities provided in the learning framework plans/learning plans, for part-time education; c) replacement of teaching hours with individual study activities and periodical meetings, holding of seminars in a tutoring and compulsory system for all the didactic activities that develop practical competences and skills in a face to face system for distance learning.

National Qualifications’ Framework

a tool used to establish qualifications, in line with a set of criteria corresponding to certain specific learning levels. The National Qualifications’ Framework is aimed at integrating and coordinating national qualification subsystems and enhancing transparency, access, progress and quality of qualifications according to the labour market and the civil society.

National register of qualifications

is a national database including the description of all the qualifications in Romania.

Provisional functioning authorization 

the process whereby the concerned educational unit/institution/organization, based on the external evaluation performed in accordance with this law, by the quality assurance agencies authorized to operate on the Romanian territory, acquires the capacity of education service supplier, under a decision of the relevant local administration authority and under Government decision. The authorization for provisional functioning gives the right to organize entrance examinations and organize and carry out the learning process.

The qualification Level 3 

entails the possession of knowledge and skills for the proper execution of the tasks within a field of activity, as well as by adapting one’s own behavior in order to solve the problems.

"Second Chance” Educational Programs

educational programs aimed at supporting children/young people/adults who left the educational system too soon, without having completed the primary and/or secondary education, exceeding by at least 4 years the school age corresponding to such levels, so as to make it possible for them to complement and finalize the compulsory learning programs and to obtain a vocational qualification.

University scientific research 

scientific research itself, artistic creation and activities specific to high performances in sports.