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Romania:Funding in Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), Art.8, a minimum of 6% of the GDP of the year in question is allotted annually from the state budget and from the budgets of the local authorities in order to finance national education. The educational institutions may also get and use their own income.


The state provides basic finance for all preschool children and pupils attending compulsory state, private and accredited religious education. The state also provides basic finance for the accredited vocational and high school state, private and religious education, as well as for state post high-school education. They shall be financed on the basis and within the limits of the standard cost per pupil or per preschool child, according to the methodology set by the Ministry of National Education.

Public education is free of charge, in compliance with the law. For certain educational activities, levels and curricula, taxes may be charged.

The Ministry of National Education, through its specialized body, sets the annual standard cost per pupil or preschooler, on which the fundamental financing is based. All pupils and preschoolers attending public preuniversity education, as well as private compulsory pupils and preschoolers attending general compulsory education, vocational, high-school, private and religious education, accredited and regularly assessed educational institutions benefit from the amount in question, in compliance with the applicable law.

Pre-university education shall be basically financed according to the “financial resource follows the pupil” principle, based on which the budgetary allowance due for a pupil or preschooler is transferred to the educational institution attended by the pupil or preschooler in question.


According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), the public high education system is free, for the amount of students approved by the government, and charged, in the limits of the Law.

The education in the higher education system is free of charge, in the limit of the positions allocated each year by the Government, the rest of the positions being available by paying the tuition. The amount of the respective tax is set by the University Senate, in compliance with the law. The higher education institutions have autonomy in deciding the quantum of the tuition taxes have the obligation to inform all the interested people on this subject, including on the university site.


Education may be financed directly by business entities, as well as by other natural or legal persons, in compliance with the law. Education may be supported through scholarships, study loans, taxes, donations, sponsorships, own sources, and other legal sources.

The State provides the free access to career counselling and orientation services to all the pupils, students and persons searching for a job.


Since 2013, the State supports the right to life-long learning by granting in lei the equivalent of 500 EURO, calculated at the currency exchange rate of lei/euro communicated by the National Bank of Romania and valid in the payment date, to each child who is a Romanian citizen, at the moment of his/her birth. The sum is granted in the purpose of education for the benefit of the titular, from the State budget through the budget of the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Protection. The sum is deposited into a deposit account, called hereinafter account for permanent education, opened at the State Treasury in the name of the child, on the basis of the birth certificate, by the natural parents of the child, their proxy or the legal representative of the child. The parents of the child, taxpayers, can direct into the account for permanent education a percentage of up to 2% from the value of the annual income tax, within the conditions of the law, and can deposit sums in this account. The account holder (“titular”) is the only person who can request sums from the permanent education account, starting with the age of 16 and with the expressly stated agreement, as appropriate, of the parents, legal guardian or legal representative. The State Treasury issues vouchers equivalent to the value of the requested sums. The methodology for the certification of the fact that the sums have been spent for the permanent education is elaborated by the Ministry of National Education.