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Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Basic principles regarding the education in Romania are established by the Constitution, Chapter II – Fundamental rights and liberties, Article 32 – Right to education.

According to this article:

  • The right to education is ensured through general compulsory education, high school (Liceu), vocational education and training (Şcoala de Arte şi Meserii), higher education, as well as through other forms of instruction and professional development;
  • Generally, education at all levels is provided in Romanian; education can be also provided in foreign languages used world-wide;
  • The right of the persons belonging to national minorities to learn their mother tongue and the right to be instructed in their mother tongue is guaranteed; the modalities to exercise these rights are established through law;
  • State education is free of charge. The State provides scholarships to children and youngsters from disadvantaged families or institutionalised;
  • Education of all levels is provided in public, private and confessional institutions
  • University autonomy is guaranteed;
  • The state guarantees the liberty of religious education, according to specific requirements of each religious cult.

The Law of the National Education (Law no. 1/2011) provides the legal framework for the exercise of the basic right to lifetime an education under the authority of the Romanian state. The law regulates the structure, the functions, the organization and functioning of the national state, private and confessional educational system.

The law aims at promoting an education based on values, creativity, cognitive and will capacities and action-based capacities, fundamental knowledge and skills, knowledge and abilities of direct usage, in the profession and the society.

The law aims at forming by means of education the mental infrastructure of the Romanian society, in accordance with the new requirements imposed by Romania’s EU membership and by the existence within the context of the globalization and sustainable generation of a highly-competitive national human resource, capable of functioning efficiently in the present and future society.

The educational ideal of the Romanian school consists in the free, and harmonious of human individuality, in forming the autonomous personality and in assuming a system of values which are necessary to personal fulfilment and development, the development of the business spirit, the active participation of citizens in society, social integration and employment.

The state provides Romania citizens with equal rights of access to all levels and forms of pre-university and higher education, as well as lifetime education without any form of discrimination. The citizens of the other EU states and the states belonging to the European Economical space and Swiss confederation enjoy the same rights. The rights are equally acknowledged for all under-age population who request or have received a form of protection in Romania, foreign under-age and stateless children whose residence in Romania is officially acknowledged according to the law. 

In Romania, education is a national priority. 

The principles governing Romanian pre-university and higher education are:

  • The principle of fairness, according to which the access to educational opportunities is made without discrimination;
  • The principle of quality, based on which educational activities are performed according to international and national reference standards and good practice;
  • The principle of relevance, according to which education meets the need for personal development and social-economical needs;
  • The principle of efficiency, for maximum educational performance, by managing the current resources;
  • The principle of decentralization, based on which the main decisions are made by the stakeholders directly involved in the process;
  • The principle of public responsibility, based on which Educational facilities and institutions are publicly responsible for their performance;
  • The principle of the guarantee of cultural identity for all Romanian citizens and intercultural dialogue;
  • The principle of the assumption, promotion and safeguarding national identity and cultural values of the Romanian people;
  • The principle of the recognition and guarantee of rights to those belonging to national minorities, the right to keep, develop and express their ethnical, cultural, language and religious identity;
  • The principle of ensuring equal opportunities;
  • The principle of the autonomy of the university;
  • The principle of academic freedom;
  • The principle of transparency – materializing in ensuring total visibility of decision and results, through their regular and adequate notification;
  • The principle of the freedom of thought and independence towards ideologies, religious dogmas and political doctrines;
  • The principle of social integration;
  • The principle of beneficiary-based education;
  • The principle of parent participation and responsibilities;
  • The principle of promoting education for health, including through exercise and sports;
  • The principle of the organization of confessional education according to the specific requirements of every acknowledged cult;
  • The principle of dialogue and consultation-based decisions;
  • The principle of respecting the right to opinion of students, in their capacity as direct beneficiaries of the educational system.

The main purpose of the education and vocational training of children, young people and adults is to develop competences, in the form of a multifunctional and transferable set of knowledge, skills/abilities and aptitudes, necessary for:

  • Personal accomplishment and development by achieving personal life objectives, according to one’s personal the interests and aspirations, and to the desire to learn throughout the whole life;
  • Social integration and active civic participation to the society;
  • Holding a job and taking part into the functioning and development of a sustainable economy;
  • Forming an outlook on life, based on human and scientific values, national and universal culture and stimulation of intercultural dialogue;
  • Education based on dignity, tolerance and observance of human fundamental rights and freedom;
  • Cultivation of sensibility towards human problems, the moral and civic values and respect for nature and natural, social and cultural environment.

The Ministry of National Education develops, substantiates and applies national educational strategies, by consulting the main social partners (representative didactic staff associations, the National Council of Rectors, university and state, private and religious, the Council of National Minorities, unions, public administration authorities, business environment, school associations, representative parents’ associations, representative educational trade unions, representative pupils’ associations, representative students’ associations and financing non-government associations supporting educational programmes/federations of the social services providers).

The State encourages the development of public–private partnerships, by specific measures included in Government Decisions and Minister’s Orders.

The current management and administration of the education system is performed at national level through Decisions of the Government and Orders of the Minister of National Education – both types of legislative acts implementing the provisions of the laws.