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Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Funding

According to the National Education Law (Law 1/2011, with subsequent amendments), the public education is free of charge. For some activities, levels, cycles and study programs fees may be charged. Funding for public, private and confessional pre-university education is ensured from public funds or other sources, according to the law. Funding for the accredited private and confessional pre-university education is done from taxes, public funds, for pre-school and compulsory education, and from other sources, according to the law. 

Funding is based on and within the limits of the standard cost per student or per preschool student, according to the methodology developed by the National Education Ministry. Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, through its specialized body establishes annually the standard cost per pre-school student/student.

The state provides basic funding for all the pre-school students and for all the students in primary, secondary, vocational and high school in accredited public, private or confessional education for students in post-secondary public education, and, where appropriate, for beneficiaries of training courses for the baccalaureate national exam. The provisions related to the basic funding for accredited private and confessional pre-university education were successively prorogued by Government Emergency Ordinances; last postponement being decreed for December 31, 2016. 

Funding of the pre-university education units comprises basic funding, complementary funding and additional funding. 

Pre-university education shall be basically financed according to the “financial resource follows the pupil” principle, based on which the budgetary allowance due for a pupil or preschooler is transferred to the educational institution attended by the pupil or preschooler in question.

The basic financing ensures the performance if the preacademic education process in normal conditions, in compliance with the national standards. The basic financing is ensured from the State budget, from amounts deducted from the value added tax and from other revenues to the State budget, through the local budgets, for the following categories of costs:

  • wage costs, bonuses, allowances and other entitlements in cash, provided by the law, and the related contributions;
  • staff’s ongoing training and assessment costs;
  • students’ periodical internal assessment costs;
  • material and service costs;
  • current maintenance costs.

Schools’ basic financing results from multiplying the standard cost per student/preschooler by specific coefficients of the schools and by the number of students and is approved by Government resolution on an yearly basis. The basic financing approved on an yearly basis through the government budget law is distributed on communes, towns, cities and Bucharest sectors by the public county finance directorates, or by the Bucharest public county finance directorate, with specialized technical assistance from county school inspectorates, or from the Bucharest county school inspectorate.

For the basic financing of the pre-university educational institution with tuition in the languages of the national minorities, the standard cost per pupil and preschooler is calculated by using a bigger coefficient based on correction factors, by taking into account tuition in the language of the national minority or teaching of the language of the national minority. In the case of such units, the linguistic and geographical isolation and the low number of pupils and preschoolers are taken into account.

The complementary financing ensures capital expenditures, social expenditures and other costs associated to the public preuniversity education process. The complementary financing is ensured from the local budgets of the administrative and territorial units to which the pre-university educational units are attached, from amounts deducted from the value added tax, for the following categories of expenses:

  • investments, capital repairs, consolidations;
  • subsidies for boarding schools and canteens;
  • expenses for the periodic evaluation of students;
  • expenses with the students’ scholarships;
  • expenses with the students’ transportation;
  • commuting expenses incurred by the teaching staff, in compliance with the law;
  • expenses for the periodical mandatory medical examination of the employees in the pre-academic education system, except for those who, according to law, benefit from free medical support;
  • expenses for school competitions and extra-curricular activities organized in the educational system;
  • costs incurred for the provision of the health and safety at work, for the staff employed, preschoolers and students;
  • emergency situation management;
  • costs for the participation into European educational and vocational training cooperation projects.

The complementary financing approved on an yearly basis through the government budget law is distributed on communes, towns, cities and Bucharest sectors by the public county finance directorates, or by the Bucharest public county finance directorate, with specialized technical assistance from county school inspectorates, or from the Bucharest county school inspectorate.

The basic and complementary financing take place based on the performance contract concluded between the pre-university educational unit principal and the mayor of the settlement/sector where the education facility is located at, respectively the President of the County Council in the case of special schools.

The supplementary financing is granted as a global fixed amount from the budget of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research in order to reward the education facilities with special results in the field of inclusion or performance. The local councils or the local councils of the Bucharest sectors and county councils, or Bucharest General Council may contribute to the supplementary financing, by giving grants to the education facilities, based on their own methodology. The supplementary financing take place based on the performance contract concluded between the pre-university educational unit and the sponsor.

The sanitary permit necessary for the operation of the public education institutions is free of charge.

Financial Autonomy and Control

According to the National Education Law (Law No.1/2011, with subsequent amendments), the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research has the right to initiate financial and human resources policies in the field of education , and collaborates with other ministries, local authorities, associative structures representing local authorities, parents’ association, professional associations of the teaching staff, as well as with the representative trade unions.

Local councils and the county council, or the local councils of the Bucharest sectors may contribute from their own budgets to the basic and complementary financing of public preacademic education units.

The public pre-academic education units may have their own revenues from specific activities, according to the law, from donations, sponsorships and other legal sources. The revenues do not affect the basic, complementary or supplementary financing and are used based on the decisions of the Board of Directors. at the end of the budgetary year, the amounts that have not been spent are kept into the account of the educational unit that has obtained them and are carried forward for the next budgetary year. The principal and the board of directors of educational units with legal status are responsible for observing the approved budget, in compliance with the law.

The budget of revenues and expenses is decided each year, by each pre-academic education facility, according to the methodological norms for financing pre-academic education drafted by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, and is approved and applied according to the legislation in force.

Fees within Public Education

For some activities, levels, cycles and study programs fees may be charged as provided by the National Education Law no.1/2011, with subsequent amendments.

Financial Support for Learners' Families

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The financial support provided from the public budget and/or local budgets for families with children in pre-university education consists of: 

  • providing free textbooks for students in compulsory education;
  • granting of prizes, scholarships, places in camps and other such material incentives to students with high performance at school, and to those with outstanding results in their professional education and training or in sports and cultural activities;
  • the Horn and Milk program for pre-school students from public and private kindergartens with normal program (4 hours) and for all the students in the preparatory class and classes I-VIII in private and public education (GEO no.96/2002, with subsequent amendments);
  • providing free school supplies for students coming from disadvantaged families (Law no. 126/2002);
  • social grants for those coming from disadvantaged groups; 
  • Professional Scholarship program (GD no.1062/2012) for all students in vocational education;
  • Euro 200 program (GD no.1294/2004) for students in state or private accredited education with gross income below 150 Ron/family member; 
  • Money for High School program. (GD no.1488/2004) for students from disadvantaged groups, during high school.

Financial Support for Learners

According to Law no. 125/2015, related to approving of GEO no.64/2014 for amending and completion of certain acts, the state allowance for children has a value of 84 RON. All children, Romanian citizens, foreigners or stateless persons residing in Romania, are entitled to allowance. The grant is awarded in the following situations: 

  • by the age of 18;
  • after the age of 18, if he/she attends the daily classes of some form of secondary education, organized under the law and does not repeat the school year.

Specific legal provisions regarding the amount of the allowance apply to children with disabilities, adopted children, children from single parent families, etc. State allowance is suspended for children not attending compulsory education after they turn 6, except for the children that do not attend school due to medical reasons. State allowance is not paid in the months when the child spends more than 15 days in care or social assistance institutions that provide full state-protection of the child.

Pupils belonging to the national minorities who do not have the possibility to study in their native language in their town shall be supported by receiving the cost of the transportation at the closest school with tuition in the language of the minority in question, or shall receive free board and lodging in the boarding house of the educational institution with tuition in the language of the minority in question where they are educated.

According to GD nr.904/2014, pupils with disabilities, educated in special or mass educational institutions, including those attending education in other county than their own benefit from welfare consisting in a daily food allowance, school supplies, clothing with a value equal to that provided for institutionalized children and from free accommodation in boarding schools or children homes for children with disabilities within the county/Bucharest Social Welfare and Child Protection Directorates.

For the support of children and young people able to achieve outstanding performance, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research organizes competitions and contests, special camps, symposia and other specific activities, and grants scholarships and other forms of material support.

Pupils and teachers of the compulsory public or private accredited educational institutions receive free schoolbooks, both for tuition in the Romanian language, as well as for the tuition in the languages of the minorities, in compliance with the law.

Pupils attending the daytime courses of the state preuniversity educational institutions may be granted high performance, merit, study, and social aid scholarships financed from the Government Budget, local budgets or from other sources. The amount of the scholarships granted from the state budget and their number are set annually by a resolution of the local council, respectively of the county council or local councils of the districts of Bucharest. The general criteria for granting scholarships are set by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. The specific criteria for granting high performance, merit, study, and social aid scholarships are established annually, by the boards of directors of the educational institutions, within the limits of the allocated funds and according to the curricular activities completed by the pupils. Pupils may also benefit from scholarships on the basis of a contract concluded with business entities or other legal entities or individuals. Pupils and foreign students attending pre-university education may be granted scholarships, under the terms of the law. Romanian pupils belonging to ethnical minorities who reside permanently abroad are granted scholarships, under the terms of the present law.

Ante-preschoolers, preschoolers and pupils from the state and private accredited/authorized educational institutions receive free medical, speech therapy and psychological assistance in the school medical, speech therapy and psychological assistance rooms or in State polyclinics and hospitals.

Pupils attending compulsory and high-school accredited/authorized education benefit from a 50% discount in the tariffs for local public above-ground and underground transport, as well as for the domestic road, railway, and naval transport during the entire calendar year. As a special protection measure, orphans, pupils with disabilities and institutionalized pupils benefit from free transportation for all means of transport, during the whole calendar year. The pupils who cannot be schooled in their town have their transport costs reimbursed from the budget of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, via the educational institutions they attend, based on their annual transport ticket, for maximum 50 km or are refunded the amount representing the amount of 8 two-way tickets per semester if they live in boarding school or as tenants.

Pupils benefit from 75% discount for the fees corresponding to the access to museums, concerts, theatre plays, opera, films and other cultural and sports events organized by public institutions.Romanian pupils from abroad belonging to ethnic minorities who hold a scholarship granted by the Romanian State, benefit from free access to museums, concerts, theatre plays, opera, films and other cultural and sports events organized by public institutions.

In justified situations, pupils attending compulsory education in another town are provided, as the case may be, transport services and board and lodging by local governments, with the support of the business entities, local communities, charitable organizations, and other legal entities and individuals.

The State will subsidize all the high school attendance costs incurred by pupils coming from disadvantaged rural areas or disadvantaged socioeconomic groups, as well as by those attending vocational education. The subsidizing methods are established by Government Decision, initiated by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

The financial support provided from the public budget and/or local budgets for families with children in pre-university education consists of: 

  • providing free textbooks for pupils in compulsory education;
  • granting of prizes, scholarships, places in camps and other such material incentives to students with high performance at school, and to those with outstanding results in their professional education and training or in sports and cultural activities;
  • the Horn and Milk program for pre-school students from public and private kindergartens with normal program (4 hours) and for all the students in the preparatory class and classes I-VIII in private and public education (GEO no.96/2002, with subsequent amendments);
  • providing free school supplies for students coming from disadvantaged families (Law no.126/2002); ensuring participation in holiday camps; 
  • Social grants for those from disadvantaged groups; 
  • Professional Scholarship program (GD no.1062/2012) for all students in vocational education; the Horn and Milk program; 
  • Euro 200 program (GD no.1294/2004) for students in state or private accredited education with gross income below 150 Ron/family member; 
  • Money for High School program. (GD no.1488/2004) for students from disadvantaged groups, during high school.

Private Education

The state provides basic funding for all the pre-school students and for all the students in primary, compulsory secondary, and vocational public, accredited private or/and confessional education, for public post-secondary school students, and where appropriate, for beneficiaries of courses for the national baccalaureate exam preparation. 

Funding for the accredited private and confessional pre-university education is done from taxes, from public funds, in the preschool, primary and compulsory secondary education, and other sources, according to the law.

The provisions related to basic funding for accredited private and confessional pre-university education were successively prorogued by the Government Emergency Ordinances, last postponement being decreed for December 31, 2016.