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Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Early education (children aged from birth to 6 years) is part of pre-university education and includes, according to the National Education Law (Law No.1/2011, with subsequent amendments), art.23 (a):the early pre-school level (0-3 years old) and pre-school education (3-6 years old).

According to Article 27 (1) of Law No.1/2011, with subsequent amendments, early pre-school education is organized in nurseries and, where appropriate, in kindergartens and day care centres. Pre-school education is organized in kindergartens with legal entity or in schools where there might be two situations: (i) groups of pre-school education that function inside a school/a high school) and (ii) kindergartens without legal personality, which works as a structure of a school/high school with legal entity.

In early education, children are usually organized in age groups: lower group (3 months - 1 year old, for early pre-school level and 3-4 years old for pre-school level), middle group (1-2 years old for early pre-school level and 4-5 years old for pre-school level) and upper group (2-3 years, for early pre-school level and 5-6 years for pre-school level). In the same time, setting up of heterogeneous groups is also encouraged, particularly where establishing groups by age or even the distribution of brothers and friends in the same group are not possible.

In early education, three types of programs are offered (either in the same institution or in different institutions), namely: normal program (4 hours), extended program (10 hours) and weekly program (from Monday to Friday). Unlike pre-school education, according to GD 1252/2012, in nurseries and other early pre-school education services, parents are recommended that where possible, not to leave the children more than 10 hours in the institution and even longer, it is recommended to use the services at night only in special cases: work program during the night/single parent family, medical emergency in the family, death in the family.

The conditions and methods of organization and functioning of early pre-school and pre-school educational units are provided in the Methodology of Organization and Functioning of Nurseries and Other Early Pre-school Education Services (GD Nr.1252/2012) and the Regulation of Organization and Functioning of pre-university education units (OM 5115/2014).

Quality standards for early education are developed by the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-university Education (Agentia Romana de Asigurare a Calitatii in Invatamantul Preuniversitar - ARACIP). Reference standards and performance indicators for evaluation and quality assurance in pre-university education, including early education, went through a review process, within the project POSDRU/153/1.1/S/138879, "Supporting schools to increase the quality of educational services" and will be promoted through a new Government Decision.

The accreditation of early education providers, early pre-school level, is done in accordance with the methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and the Ministry of Health and based on reference standards.

The accreditation of early education providers, at pre-school level, is accomplished by the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-university Education (Agentia Romana de Asigurare a Calitatii in Invatamantul Preuniversitar - ARACIP) based on reference standards.

In early education, early pre-school level, the number of children/group can be: maximum 7 for groups with children up to one year old and maximum 15 for groups with children between 1 and 3 years old. At pre-school level, the groups of children may have, on average, 15 children, respectively: minimum 10 and maximum 20.

Early education teaching positions are: a) in early pre-school education: child carer-educator - one post is normed for every group of children; in institutions with extended or weekly program, the teaching staff is normed by shifts; b) in pre-school education: teacher for pre-school education - one post is normed for every group of children; in institutions with extended or weekly program, the teaching staff is normed by shifts.

Providing the teaching staff needed for functioning the early pre-school education is done by the local public authorities, together with the inspectorates, respecting the existing quality standards and legislation. In pre-school education, teaching positions are occupied through a competition organized in the education unit with legal entity, according to a framework-methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. Decisions regarding the vacancy of teaching positions, organizing competitions for job positions and hiring the teaching staff are taken at education unit level by the management board of the unit, on director proposal, according to a methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.