This page was last modified on 19 January 2017, at 19:12.

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

For teaching, management, guidance and control staff, the continuing training is a right and an obligation.

Continuous training of teaching, management, guidance and control staff is achieved according to the development in the field of education and professional training, including in terms of the national curriculum, and according to the personal interests and needs for development.

Obtaining a new teaching specialization, different from the current one, through appropriate studies, is considered continuous training.

The continuous training of teachers includes:

  • professional development and
  • career evolution.

Professional development of the teaching, management, guidance and control staff and professional re-qualification are based on professional standards for the teaching profession, quality standards and professional competences and have the following general finalities:

  • updating and development of competences in the field of specialization corresponding to the occupied teaching position, as well as in the psycho-pedagogical and methodical field
  • skills development for career evolution in teaching , through the system of training and obtaining of teaching degrees
  • acquiring or development of the management, guidance and control skills
  • acquiring of new competences, through conversion programs for new specialization and/or employment on new teaching positions, other than those occupied on the basis of the initial training
  • acquisition of complementary competences that extend the category of activities possible to be carried out in the daily activities, such as computer-aided teaching, teaching in foreign languages, educational counselling and career guidance, adult education and others
  • development and extension of the transversal skills regarding interaction and communication with the social and pedagogical environment, assuming the responsibilities regarding organization, management and improvement of strategic performance of professional groups, self-control and reflective analysis of his/her own activity and others.

Career evolution is done through the IInd teaching degree and the Ist teaching degree, and through certification exams for different levels of competence.

The examination topics, the bibliography and the procedure for organizing and conducting the examinations for obtaining the teaching degrees are regulated by a methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research establishes the national body of experts in educational management, constituted after the selection through a specific contest, of teachers who provide proof of graduation of an accredited training program in educational management, with at least 60 transferable credits. The procedure and selection criteria are determined by the methodology approved by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports. Management, guidance and control positions in schools and school inspectorates may be occupied only by teachers who are members of the national body of experts in educational management.

The positions of headmaster and deputy headmaster are occupied through a public contest by titular teaching staff who are members of the national body of experts in educational management. The methodology for organizing and conducting the contest for the positions of headmaster and deputy headmaster is set by order of the Minister of National Education. The contest for appointment of headmaster and deputy headmaster is organized by the school inspectorate. After passing the contest, the headmaster signs an administrative and financial management contract with the mayor/district mayor of the administrative territorial unit, respectively with the president of the county council within whose jurisdiction is the education unit.

Continuous training of teachers is based on the paradigm of approaching through competences and on the concept of cumulative development of competence level of teaching staff. The level of competence covered by the programs and continuing training/development activities is evaluated according to:

  • the teacher's ability to mobilize, combine and use autonomously the knowledge capabilities, the skills and general and professional competences in line with the diverse requirements of a specific context, situation or issue
  • the teacher's ability to cope with change, complex and unpredictable situations.

Organisational aspects

Continuous training of teaching staff in preuniversity education is done through a system of institutions, organizations and their structures, between whom there are established hierarchical and functional relationships aimed at ensuring coherence, compatibility and compliance with quality standards in design, execution and evaluation of continuing education programs at national level.

From the point of view of positions and functions by which are empowered the institutions, organizations and structures that comprise it, the national system of continuous teacher training in preuniversity education includes:

  • institutions and their structures having regulatory, coordination, financing, evaluation, accreditation and monitoring functions for the continuing training programs
  • institutions, organizations and their structures with organization and accomplishment functions for the continuing training programs and activities, having the status of programs suppliers for continuous teacher training.

The main forms of organization of lifelong training/professional development programs for preuniversity education teaching staff are:

  • methodological, scientific and psihopedagogical activities, achieved at the educational unit level or by group of units (methodological commissions, departments and pedagogical circles)
  • methodological and scientific communications sessions, symposiums and exchange of experience on specialty and pedagogical issues
  • periodic internships for scientific specialty information and in the educational sciences field
  • courses organized by scientific societies and other professional organizations of teachers
  • training courses for specialized, methodological and psychopedagogical training
  • training courses and exams for obtaining the teaching degrees (definitive as a teacher in education, the IInd and the Ist teaching degrees)
  • training and development courses for management, guidance and control staff, according to specific programs
  • training scholarships and internships for study and documentation, accomplished in the country or abroad
  • postgraduate specialization courses
  • master studies
  • doctoral studies.

The professional conversion programs are in the responsibilities of higher education institutions and take place on the basis of specific methodological norms.

Evaluation and validation of acquisitions achieved by the teaching staff through various programs and forms of organization of lifelong training/professional development programs are carried out through the system of recognition, equalization and accumulation of transferable professional credits. 

Teachers and management, guidance and control staff in preuniversity education attend every 5 years a professional development program. In order to fulfil the this condition, the teachers in preuniversity education must accumulate every five years a minimum of 90 transferable professional credits.

These can be obtained by:

  • participation in a development training program once every 5 years, of 30-90 credits, accredited by the National Centre for Training of the Pre-University Education Staff
  • methodical, scientific and psychopedagogical activities.

Development programs and activities referred to above can be organized in flexible forms of education, adapted to the training objectives and contents, as well as to the possibilities and needs of the participants, namely:

  • through full-time modular courses, during school holidays, in non-working days or working days specifically allocated to training activities
  • through the system of distance learning, using e-learning platforms and electronic media, combined with orientation and assisted learning through tutoring procedures
  • through part-time courses organized by institutions of higher education, combined with periodic consultations, according to participants options
  • through other organizational forms that combines trainers assisted learning (by courses, seminars, laboratories and common practical activities), with learning through individual study and independent activity of the participants.

Methodological, scientific and psychopedagogical activities at the school level are organized and conducted by departments and methodical commissions. Methodological and scientific activities conducted within methodical departments/committees aim objectives and contents that have a direct impact on the educational process conducted in school and they are focused on the main pedagogical approaches, namely: process analysis, design, achievement, evaluation and improvement/development.

The main steps and activities by which departments/methodical committees contribute to the continuous training/ development of the teaching staff consist of:

  • analysis of the general and specific education needs, of the common and special needs, and setting the priorities based on which the learning process is designed
  • analysis of the educational resources and formulating the way they will be distributed and used at the concrete level of school and of classes/groups of preschoolers
  • analysis of the specific social and pedagogical context in which the educational process is carried out
  • analysis of the classes /groups of preschoolers in terms of learning performance and the determination of initial (prior) conditions from which every stage of the education process starts (at the beginning of a cycle, a school year, a semester, or a new chapter in the curriculum)
  • operational definition of educational objectives and/or competences targeted through the learning process
  • the organizing, logical structure and psycho-pedagogical transposition of teaching and learning contents, depending on the particularities of psychological and school age of students and on the particularities of each class /groups of preschoolers
  • choosing, analysis and evaluation of the teaching strategies, methods, techniques and tools for teaching and learning and applying them to the particularities of the disciplines and of the classes/groups of preschoolers
  • choosing, construction and validation of methods and instruments of formative and summative assessment of pupils and evaluation of educational outcomes
  • establishing and applying leverages and means of self-regulation and improvement of the education process based on the results of evaluation at each stage
  • broadening and deepening of the specialized and pedagogical knowledge and their integration into investigative approaches, assessment and critical analysis of theories, approaches, and principles of education.

The main modalities of organization and conduct the departments/methodical commissions activities are:

  • group discussions
  • the preparation and presentation of reports with specialized, didactical or psychopedagogical content
  • elaboration, implementation and valorization of research projects carried out individually or in a team
  • reviews and book presentation
  • scientific communication sessions
  • sharing experience, assisting and evaluating lessons
  • practical activities having a demonstrative or applicative role.

The training activities are included in the work program of the department/methodical commission, prepared annually and updated every six months. In the case of methodical departments/committees formed between groups of schools, the activity program must include successively activities organized, in a balanced manner, in every component of the education units.

Methodological-scientific and pedagogical activities at the local, regional or county level are organized and conducted through the educational circles. They bring together educators, school teachers, foremen instructors, teachers, responsible persons of methodical commissions, headmasters, teachers employed in psycho-pedagogical assistance centers, in Teaching-Staff Resource Centers, in special education, in children's palaces and clubs etc. from a town, a region, or at the county level.

Pedagogical circles are forums for synthesis, for evaluation of educational outcomes and of factors that determine the effectiveness of the educational process, for communication and valorisation of teaching experiences and of pedagogical research findings conducted by teachers, for constructive criticism and evaluation of teaching and learning methods, for contents and organization of the educational process, for launching of educational projects with impact at regional and county level.

The process of awarding the teaching degrees marks the career evolution of teaching staff according to the new National Qualifications Framework and with occupational standards associated to teaching specializations, as well as in accordance with the new trends regarding human resources development and quality assurance in education.

Obtaining the definitive as a teacher in education degree signifies the recognition of the minimal acceptable competences acquired by a person who chose a teaching career and guarantees, in this way, that the person has the necessary skills needed to practice the teaching profession and can enter on a professional route upward. 

Obtaining the IInd teaching degree signifies achieving by a teacher of a further professionalization, confirmed by the results obtained at tests specifically designed to highlight the added value acquired in the period of time passed since he/she obtained the definitive as a teacher degree. 

Granting the Ist teaching degree means achieving by a teacher of a high level of professional maturity and expertise, which recommend him/her as a generator of good practice in school environment.

Definitive as a teacher in education and the IInd and Ist teaching degrees can be obtained by teaching staff who meets the conditions regarding specialized studies, psycho-pedagogical training, seniority in education and professional performance. The exams for obtaining the definitive as a teacher in education and the IInd and Ist teaching degrees are organized separately for each teaching function. Definitive as a teacher in education and the IInd and Ist teaching degrees can be obtained within each teaching function, for the specialization the teacher is teaching, or for one of the specializations written on diplomas he/she hold.

The exam tests for obtaining the definitive as a teacher in education and the IInd and Ist teaching degrees are set on teaching functions established by law, and they are unique at national level and mandatory for all training institutions/centers authorized to organize these exams. The syllabi based on which the tests are conducted are approved by order of the Minister of Education and are available at national level. Teachers enrolled in exams to obtain the teaching degrees can participate in training programs organized by the training centers in order to pass these exams.

Obtaining the definitive as a teacher in education degree

The national exam for definitive as a teacher in education degree is organized by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, in accordance with a methodology approved by order of the Minister of Education, and it includes:

  1. stage I, eliminatory - is done by school inspectorates during the practical training lasting one school year and it consists of an evaluation of the professional activity at school level, an evaluation of the personal and professional portfolio and in sustaining of at least two inspections at class
  2. stage II, final – is accomplished at the completion of the practical training lasting one school year and it consists of a written exam, based on a topic and a bibliography approved by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, for each specialty separately.

The written and oral tests of the exam for the definitive as a teacher in education degree assess the theoretical knowledge of the discipline and its didactics, as well as pedagogy and elements of psychology of education.

Teachers who pass the definitive as a teacher exam acquire the degree (title) of teacher having the right to practice in preuniversity education.

Teachers employed with a labour contract for a determined period of time, who passed the exam to obtain the definitive as a teacher in education degree, can be ensured the continuity in the teaching position, by decision of the Administrative Board of the respective school, according to the law.

Those who do not pass the exam for definitive as a teacher in education can be employed in the preuniversity national education system only for a determined period of time, having the status of beginner teacher.

Conferring the IInd teaching degree 

The IInd teaching degree can be obtained by teachers having seniority in the education system of at least 4 years since obtaining the definitive as a teacher degree by promoting the following exams:

  1. a special school inspection, preceded by at least two current school inspections spread over the four years
  2. a test at the didactics of the discipline, having interdisciplinary and creative approaches, elaborated based on a topic and a bibliography approved by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, for each discipline separately
  3. a pedagogy oral test, based on a syllabus approved by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, which also includes elements of educational psychology and sociology.

In case of failure, the exam for obtaining the IInd teaching degree can be repeated at an interval of at least 2 school years.

Conferring the Ist Teaching Degree

The Ist teaching degree can be obtained by teachers having seniority in the education system of at least 4 years since obtaining the IInd teaching degree, by promoting the following tests:

  1. an admission colloquium based on a topic and a bibliography approved by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, for each discipline separately
  2. a special school inspection, preceded by at least two current school inspections, spread over the 4 years, all appreciated with the maximum mark
  3. a methodological and scientific paperwork, written under the guidance of a scientific coordinator established by the institution competent in the field
  4. presentation of the methodological and scientific paperwork, to the committee established according to the methodology of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

In case of failure, the exam for obtaining the Ist teaching degree, can be repeated at an interval of at least 2 school years.

Incentives for participation in CPD activities

Incentives are not given.