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Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

National Education Law (Law No.1/2011,, with subsequent amendments) establishes, among other things, the working conditions, the mandatory professional training for teaching positions, the types of development training programs for teachers. The law also explicitly states the terms of education (see the section Teachers and other educational staff categories) and that employment of teachers must be done based on competition (national competitive examination for teachers in preuniversity education). 

In public preuniversity education, validation of the competition for occupying the teaching positions is done by the board of the school inspectorate. Employment of the teaching staff with individual labour contract is done by the head of the school, based on the allocation decision signed by the general school inspector.

In private education, competitions’ validation and employment on teaching positions are done by the management of the private education unit and communicated in writing to the school inspectorate.

Planning Policy

Nationwide educational planning for recruitment of teachers applies only to preuniversity education and it is a process with several stages involving three types of bodies:

  • school management
  • school inspectorates and
  • the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

During the entire process, the social partnership is ensured by the mandatory participation of the trade unions representatives at every stage (having a consultative role).

At the school level.

Each school must establish the exact number of teachers needed for the next school year for each educational level and subject (employment project) according to: 

  • The national policy concerning the registration of students on educational level, pathway, profile and specialization (considering the situation and the demographic evolution, the employment policies for workforce, the educational system structure and other factors). This is expressed at:
    • national level by tuition figures established by government decision 
    • the county level by tuition figures approved by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, and
    • the school level by tuition figures decided by the school inspectorate.
  • The national policy regarding the general objectives and outcomes of education. This is expressed at:
    • the school level through the National Curriculum structure and content (subjects and number of classes per week for each subject).
  • The national policy regarding the working conditions for teachers. This is expressed at
    • the school level by the didactic norms, professional status and specific work conditions. Teachers who reach the legal age of retirement may request to remain in activity, with the recommendation of the teachers' council. The school inspectorate decides on these requests, taking into account the overall balance between the supply and demand of teachers by subjects at the county level. 

Based on the proposals made by heads of departments, the headmaster first allocates hours to permanent teachers from the respective school (teachers who signed a permanent contract with the general school inspector for the respective educational unit).

After completing the norms of permanent teachers under the law, the headmaster proposes as vacancies the remaining hours on educational level and discipline.

The draft of employment made this way has to be firstly approved by the teachers' council. Finally, the board and the trade union representative approve the employment draft which is then submitted to the school inspectorate.

At the school inspectorates’ level

At the school inspectorates’ level, all employment projects proposed by the educational institutions are evaluated and negotiated with their headmasters and with teachers' trade unions representatives and then consolidated by educational level and subject.

The final form of the employment draft at county level is forwarded to the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

The counties employment drafts are assessed at the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research level then they are negotiated with the school inspectorates and with the trade unions representatives and finally approved.

After approval, the employments at county level come into effect and are published both at the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research level, and at the school inspectorates’ level.

The selection, recruitment and employment of teachers is done only based on these approved appointments.

The supply of teachers is also subject, to some extent, to a national planning.

This is expressed nationwide by approved tuition figures for educational institutions providing initial teacher education:

  • pedagogical high schools
  • pedagogical university colleges and
  • other higher education institutions.

Similar to all tuition figures, they are decided on the basis of consultations and considering the situation and demographic trends, employment policies of workforce, the educational system structure, etc.

Entry to the Profession

In public and private preuniversity education, the teaching positions are occupied through a contest organized at the level of educational institution with legal personality, according to a framework methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

The decisions regarding:

  • the vacancy of teaching positions
  • the organization of contests on post and
  • the employment of the teaching staff are taken at school level by the board of educational unit at the proposal of the headmaster, according to a methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

The Administrative Board of the school sets the available teaching positions for employment, their status:

  • vacations
  • reserved, and
  • the conditions and terms for their occupation.

The School Inspectorate:

  • examines
  • corrects in collaboration with the schools and
  • approves the offer of vacant/reserved teaching positions. The list of teaching positions is made public by posting it at the school inspectorates and at the education units in question and on these institutions' websites with at least 30 days before triggering the selection and recruitment procedures for these teaching positions. 

The competition consists of:

  1. a practical test or a special inspection in classroom and a written test at the specialty didactics for employing teachers with individual labour contract
  2. submission of a curriculum vitae and sustaining of an interview for employment by hourly payment of associate teachers and retired teachers. 

The education units, individually, in school consortiums or in temporary joint at local or county level, organize the contest for occupying the teaching positions, in accordance with their status. The contest commissions are approved by the Administrative Board of the education unit. In the contest commission composed of teachers there is necessarily a representative of the county school inspectorate. In case the contest is organized in school consortia or in temporary joint at local or county level, commissions are validated by the Administrative Boards of the schools.

The headmasters of schools notify in writing the school inspectorate immediately after the contest, the following situations:

  • employing with individual labour contract for an indefinite period of time on teaching positions of candidates validated after the contest
  • beginners who occupied (through a validated contest, in terms of methodology, by the Administrative Board of the educational unit) a vacancy teaching position and for which the Administrative Board of the educational unit may decide to change the duration of the individual labour contract from a determined period of time into an undetermined period of time, in case that these candidates pass the exam for definitive as a teacher in education
  • candidates who participated in the contest and are undistributed
  • the teaching positions and the hours remaining vacant after the contest organized at the school unit/consortia level. 

School inspectorate centralizes at county/Bucharest municipality level the teaching positions and hours remained vacant, that will be distributed in the order established by the methodology developed after the consultation of the social partners and approved by the minister of education.

Teaching positions left vacant after the contest or vacated during the school year are occupied on a determined period of time, by detachment or by hourly payment, till the end of the school year or till the return on the position of the teacher who benefited of post reservation. In case that the teaching positions vacated during the school year cannot be occupied in this way, the Administrative Boards of the education units are empowered to organize and carry out individually, in school consortia or in temporary local joint, contests for teaching positions for employment with individual labour contract for a definite period of time of qualified teachers. Exceptionally, the Administrative Boards of schools may organize interviews and written tests, in the requested position profile, for employment with an individual labour contract for a determined period of time of staff without appropriate studies for the position.

Representatives of trade union organizations at education branch level participate as observers at all stages of organization and development of the contests organized at school unit/consortia level.

In the public preuniversity education, validation of contests for occupying the teaching positions is done by the Administrative Board of the education unit that organizes the competition. The employment of teaching staff with individual labour contract is done by the headmaster, based on the appointment decision signed by the general school inspector.

In private education, contests’ validation and employment of teachers are done by the management of the private education unit and they are communicated in writing to the school inspectorate.

Induction

The initial training for the teaching position provided in the formal education is completed with an insertion period lasting minimum 2 years.

During this period, beginner teachers are employed based on labour contract in identical conditions to those of teachers definitive employed, with the same responsibilities, rights and obligations (including teaching norm, salary, etc.).

During this initial stage, beginner teachers are assisted by the specialist school inspector and by a mentor appointed by the headmaster.

After a period of minimum 2 years established by law, the beginner teachers may take the exam for definitive as a teacher - an assessment that certifies (for the respective persons) the required professional competences for the teaching activity.

The exam to become definitive as a teacher becomes compulsory after 2 years since the end of the initial stage, and beginner teachers can sustain up to 3 times this exam in a period of 5 years.

The persons who do not pass the definitive as a teacher exam under the law can no longer work as qualified teachers.

Professional Status

The teaching profession in Romania is a profession regulated by law.

Consequently, for a given level of education, teachers work under similar conditions across the country.

The individual labour contract is signed in accordance with the general provisions of labour legislation.

The individual labour contract can be:

  • permanent, or
  • temporary.

In public education, within the limits established by law, the concrete rights and obligations of employees are further detailed in the following work contracts:

  • The collective work contract at national level - negotiated and signed between the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and the trade union representatives in education
  • The collective work contract at the county level or respectively at the level of the higher education institution - negotiated and signed between the school inspectorates and respectively the management of the higher education institutions and the teachers' trade unions representatives
  • The individual labour contract - established based on provisions of collective labour contracts and signed between employers and teachers.

The provisions of all the labour contracts (collective and individual) are compulsory both for employers and for employees.

At the level of each unit or educational institution, job description for each teaching position is negotiated between teachers and management.

The standard format of the job description is established within the collective labour contract. Job description represents the document based on which the assessment of individual performance of each teacher is performed.

Teaching positions in preuniversity education can be occupied by:

  • titular teachers
  • associate teachers, or
  • substitute teachers.

Titular teachers

Titular teachers are employed for an indefinite period of time through the decision of the general school inspector. The specific rights resulting from this status are as follows:

  • School inspectorates must ensure with maximum priority jobs for titular teachers, preferably in the schools where they were hired
  • Titular teachers are allowed to transfer or detach from an educational institution to another, according to the law. The teaching positions occupied by titular teachers are reserved on detachment periods
  • Titular teachers are allowed to compete for management, guidance and control positions, according to the law
  • The teaching positions of titular teachers are reserved during the period of time they are doing certain activities stipulated by law (carrying out management, guidance and control activities or other functions in the central or local administration, during postuniveritary studies or during unpaid leave for specialization, etc.)
  • Titular teachers benefit of some support facilities established by law.

Substitute teachers

Substitute teachers are employed by decision of the general inspector for a period of one year or until the returning of the holder.

Substitute teachers must compete annually for a teaching position and do not benefit of the specific rights of titular teachers mentioned above.

If in a certain educational unit remain vacant hours after completion of all mobility activities of teaching staff, the headmaster may assign these hours by cumulation or hourly payment to the titular teaching staff, associated staff or retirement teachers.

Associated and retired staff

Associated and retired staff are employed for a period of time up to one school year by decision of the general school inspector.

Excepting the specific conditions established for titular teachers, all the other working conditions are identical for titular, associated and substitute teachers (responsibilities, rights, obligations, working time, holidays, teaching norms, salaries, etc.).

Replacement Measures

For short periods of time, absent teachers may be replaced by teachers from the same unit or educational institution.

In such situations it is not always possible to ensure a teacher of the same subject as the absent one.

The replacement in such situations is generally based on mutual agreement and there is no obligation explicitly provided by law or by collective or individual labour contracts regarding this activity.

For longer periods of time, absent teachers may be replaced by substitute teachers.

Substitute teachers (in this context) may be titular teachers in other schools, teachers who do not have an employment contract at that time, retired teachers and, in some cases, unqualified personnel.

Supporting Measures

The measures to support teachers may be classified in the following categories:

  • Measures regarding job safety for titular teachers
  • Measures to facilitate and encourage the participation to continuous training programs
  • Measures to support teachers working in rural areas
  • Social support measures
  • Measures to ensure transparency and fairness of all types of decisions regarding employment status, career progress, assessment, etc. as well as the specific conditions related to conflict resolution.

Salaries

Teaching staff’ salary consists of:

  • the base salary, set by law, and
  • a variable component, consisting of
    • supplements
    • bonuses and
    • other additional salary rights.

The supplementary salary rights and other rights of the teaching and supporting staff are negotiated within the limits established by law, under the collective labour contracts between the administration and the education trade unions nationally recognized, according to the law.

The teaching staff statute establishes the following criteria for setting the teachers' salaries in preuniversity education:

  • performed function and teaching norm
  • level of education required for the teaching position
  • teaching degree
  • scientific title
  • recognized seniority in education
  • quality of educational activity
  • place and specific conditions where the activity is carried out.

During teaching career, the salaries increase according to a salary scale of matrix type.

The basic salary is determined using:

  • a reference value (the value for the multiplication coefficient equal to 1) and
  • fixed multiplier coefficients (with a value greater than 1).

The multiplier coefficients depend on:

  • the teaching position
  • teaching degree
  • the initial studies level and
  • seniority in education, as explained below.

The reference value is unique for the entire salary grid and it is periodically updated according to the evolution of consumer price index.

The basic salary is calculated by multiplying the reference value by the multiplication coefficient corresponding in the salary grid.

Working Time and Holidays

Regardless of education level, all teaching staff has the right to annual paid leave lasting at least 62 days (excluding Sundays and holidays), guaranteed by law. Teachers have to take their paid leave during school holidays, according to negotiated planning between the Administrative Board or the university senate and teachers' unions representatives. In duly justified cases, the management of the school or of the educational institution can interrupt the legal leave, persons concerned being paid for their work in this period. Teachers who have not taken their annual leave are entitled to carry it out in the school holidays next year.

The teaching norm in preuniversity education includes hours stipulated in the educational framework-plans for disciplines corresponding to specializations written on the bachelor's degree diploma or on the certificate of graduation of a minimum 90 ECTS credits module attesting the achieving of teaching competences for a subject in the fundamental field corresponding to the field of specialization written on diploma.

The teaching activity is done in a time interval of 8 hours daily and 40 hours a week, and includes:

  1. teaching-learning-assessment activities and training practice and final exams of a study cycle, accordingly to the educational framework-plans
  2. methodical-scientific training activities
  3. education activities, complementary to the education process: mentoring, school after school, lifelong learning
  4. coordination activities.

The teaching norm for teaching-learning-assessment and practical training and current assessment of preschoolers and pupils in class represent the number of hours corresponding for activities stipulated by law and it is determined as follows:

  1. a post of educator or schoolmaster or school teacher for pre-school education for each group with normal program, established in early education
  2. a post of school teacher or schoolmaster or primary school teacher for each class in primary education or for simultaneous classes within it, where they cannot create separate classes
  3. 18 hours per week for teachers in secondary and tertiary non-university education, for teachers from units and classes with integrated and additional program for arts and sports, as well as from units with extracurricular activities and from psycho-pedagogical assistance centers or cabinets
  4. 24 hours per week for practical training teachers and foremen instructors
  5. for teaching staff in special education, the teaching norm is established as follows:
    • school teachers and teachers - 16 hours per week
    • educator-school teacher, educator-institutor, educator-teacher, foreman-instructor and practical training teacher - 20 hours per week
  6. one post of teacher in the integrated special education, for the inter-school speech therapy centers, for itinerant and support teaching staff, for teaching staff in preschool special education, for teachers who perform specific therapies, teachers for medical physical culture, kinetotherapy, psychomotor education and others, depending on the type and degree of deficiency, according to the methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education
  7. a post for documentarist teacher in the documentation and information centers.

The didactic norm for teaching-learning-assessment activities provided for teaching and practical training staff with experience in education for over 25 years, having the Ist teaching degree, and for those being part of the teacher mentors body the norm can be reduced by 2 hours weekly, without salary reduction, within the approved budget.

The didactic norm is reduced upon the request of the teacher, submitted to the headmaster.

Promotion, Advancement

The promotion and career advancement are open to any teacher who satisfies certain conditions of professional qualification.

Advancing in positions of management, guidance and control is achieved through contest in the preuniversity education.

The management positions in preuniversity education are as follows:

  • Management positions in schools:
    • headmaster and
    • deputy headmaster.
  • Management positions in school inspectorates:
    • general school inspector and
    • deputy general school inspector.

The positions of headmaster and deputy headmaster may be occupied by titular teachers having at least the IInd teaching degree and seniority in education of at least 5 years, which are distinguished by professional, managerial and moral qualities. Appointment for the positions of headmaster and deputy headmaster in public schools is done by contest organized by the school inspectorate (open recruitment procedure).

The positions of general inspector and deputy general inspector may be occupied by titular teachers having the Ist teaching degree, which are distinguished by professional, managerial and moral qualities. Occupation of general school inspector and deputy general school inspector positions is done by contest organized by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research (open recruitment procedure).

The guiding and control positions in preuniversity education are:

  • Guiding and control positions in school inspectorates:
    • specialty school inspector and
    • school inspector.
  • Guiding and control positions in the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research:
    • general inspector
    • specialty principal inspector
    • other positions established by Government decision.

Guidance and control positions may be occupied by titular teachers having at least the IInd teaching degree and seniority in education of at least eight years, which are distinguished by professional, managerial and moral qualities. Appointment for guiding and control positions is done by contest organized by the school inspectorate, respective by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research (open recruitment procedure).

Any type of promotion induces major changes in teachers’ responsibilities, obligations and rights.

Working conditions are stipulated in the respective job descriptions established by the hierarchically superior body.

Teachers working in management, guidance and control positions sign individual labour contracts with employers (depending on position – the general school inspector or the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research).

The job description signed by the two parties becomes annex to the individual labour contract.

Transfers

Human resources management in preuniversity education is the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research and is done by school inspectorates.

The methodology for teachers’ movement is set yearly by Ministerial Order, within the law, and the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research coordinates the entire activity regarding the teaching staff mobility through school inspectorates.

All the activities concerning teachers’ mobility are coordinated at regional level by a commission appointed by the general school inspector and headed by a deputy general school inspector. The exact structure and responsibilities of this commission are set yearly by Ministerial Order. Teachers' trade unions representatives have an advisory role during the entire process, they may take part at the committee works and have the right to access the final documents.

Transfer

Only titular teachers may transfer from one school to another.

Detachment

Detachment in the interest of education

Detachment in the interest of education - leading to temporary relocation, for a period of 1-4 years, in another educational institution.

The detachment in the interest of education:

  • is requested by the school inspectorate and
  • it must be agreed by the respective teacher.

Detachment in the interest of education is used to occupy positions in educational institutions:

  • kindergartens
  • schools or classes consisting of students capable of performance
  • for groups, including preschool children or classes composed of children with special educational needs
  • pilot units
  • application units
  • units deficient in teaching staff and
  • for providing management in schools, as well as for the guidance and control positions.

Detachment on request

Detachment on request - leading to a temporary move, over a period of 1-2 years, in another educational institution.

None of the above mentioned periods of time for detachment may be exceeded.

The teaching positions of detached teachers are reserved during the period of detachment.

At the end of the detachment period, titular teachers return to their previously teaching positions .

Teachers who move from one school to another keep their basic salaries and often the working conditions are similar. This is because the salaries and the working conditions are established at national level.

Dismissal

Employing and maintaining in a teaching, auxiliary teaching or management, guidance and control positions conditioned by presentation of a medical certificate. In case of psycho-behavioural professional unsuitability, the education institution management may request, with the approval of the teachers' council, a new complete medical examination. Teachers who are found medically incompatible with the teaching profession may be dismissed or transferred to another field of activity, according to the law.

Persons who carry out activities incompatible with the teaching profession cannot hold teaching or management, guidance and control positions. Among the activities incompatible with the teaching profession, the law stipulates the following:

  • the provision by a teacher of any commercial activity inside the school or in the adjacent area
  • sale of obscene or pornographic written, audio or visual materials
  • practicing in public of some activities with a lustful component or of other activities that involve exhibition of body in an obscene manner.

Teachers have duties and responsibilities of professional, material and moral nature, that guarantee realization of the instructive-educational process, according to the law.

The teaching staff, auxiliary teaching staff as well as the management, guidance and control staff in education are disciplinary responsible for violating their duties according to the individual labour contract and for violation of behavioural rules that harms the interest of education and the prestige of institution.

Sanctions

In the preuniversity education units, the sanction proposal is made by the headmaster or at least 1/3 of the total number of the Administrative Board members or of the teachers' council. The hierarchically superior authorities have the same right.

A disciplinary sanction is applied:

  • only after the investigation of the notified facts in writing
  • the hearing of the concerned person and
  • the examination of his/her statements in purpose of defence.

The entire procedure is conducted by a research committee appointed by certain management structures, according to the gravity of the stated facts and the position of the teacher (teachers’ council, the Administrative Board of the school inspectorate or the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research).

At the end of investigation, the committee prepares and presents a report to the management structure who named it.

The managerial structure decides if there is or isn’t a guilt and, if necessary, sets the sanction to be applied.

The penalty depends on the gravity of the offense.

Throughout the procedure, the teacher has the right to be assisted by the education trade unions representatives and, if applicable, by his/her legal representatives.

The sanctioned teachers have the right to appeal the sanctioning decision at the level of local or central discipline/honour college organized at school inspectorate level, respectively at the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research level.

The decision of the discipline/honour college is final and it may be appealed only in court.

If the sanctioned person has not committed any other disciplinary violations during a year after the application of the sanction, the authority that applied it may dispose its rise and erasure (except for dismissal or disciplinary dismissal).

Disciplinary cancellation of the labour contract (disciplinary dismissal) is an extremely rare situation and may occur only after extremely serious misconduct - such as physical injury of pupils by purpose or by serious negligence, actions falling under the criminal law, illegal benefits from students, etc.

The disciplinary termination of the work contract is disposed by the employer - the general school inspector or the Minister of National Education and Scientific Research.

Retirement and Pensions

Teachers benefit of pension for their work and age limit, pension for loss of their work ability, supplementary pension and other social insurance rights, under the law.

Family members may benefit of survivorship pension, under the law.

As a general rule, teachers can retire at the end of the school year. In exceptional circumstances, teachers can retire also during the school year, with the school inspectorate approval.

Retired teachers can conduct educational activities with part-time or hourly payment, after the retirement age.

Teaching staff who carried out teaching activities after retirement and after the age of legal retirement, benefits of an additional pension recalculation for the work performed, under the law.