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Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Planning Policy

National educational planning regarding recruitment of the teachers applies only to Pre-academic education.

Entry to the Profession

According to the Education Law, selection, recruitment and appointment for all teaching positions is accomplished through competition.

The selection, recruitment and appointment process for teaching positions in higher education is based on an open recruitment procedure.

This means that the accredited or provisory authorised higher education institutions are fully responsible for organising and carrying on the entire selection, recruitment and appointment process for their teaching positions.

Nevertheless, the process has to comply with the general provisions of the Law. The open recruitment procedure has to be based on a competition opened to all persons complying with the conditions established for the considered teaching position. The results of the competition are valid only for the organising higher education institution.

According to Decision no 457/4 May 2011 says that all vacant teaching positions must be publishd within the first 30 days since the beginning of the ever university semester. 

Candidates have to register for the competition within 30 days from the advertising in the Official Bulletin.

The schedule and the methodology of the competition, as well as the themes for the examinations are provided to the candidates by the higher education institution upon registration.

The competition commissions comprise permanent teachers from and/or outside the higher education institution and is approved by the faculty council or the university senate.

1 The competition for the teaching positions assistant lecturer (asistent universitar)

The competitionis based on

  • written
  • oral and
  • practical examinations.

The types and content of the examinations are established by the chairs/departments.

The evaluation of each examination is expressed though marks on a 1 to 10 scale.

The competition commission elaborates a report recommending the candidate with the highest final average mark.

Only the candidates that have obtained at least 8.00 for the final average mark and none of the marks below 7.00 can be recommended.

The report is submitted by the dean to the faculty council that approves the result through open nominal vote.

The decision of the faculty council is validated by the university senate regarding observance of the criteria and the competition procedure.

Appointment is accomplished through the decision of the rector and becomes effective starting the first day of the next semester.

2 The competition for the teaching position lecturer (lector universitar/Şef de lucrãri)

The competition is based on:

  • the assessment of the conformity with the conditions specific to the teaching position (analyse of the candidates’ registration dossier) and
  • a public lecture delivered by each candidate in the presence of the competition commission. The theme of the lecture is established by the competition commission and is announced to the candidates 48 periods in advance.

The competition commission elaborates a report evaluating for each candidate the teaching and scientific activity, the extra-teaching activity in the interest of education, and the appreciation on the public lecture.

The chair of the competition commission presents the report in the faculty council, nominating the candidate with the best performances.

The faculty council approves the result of the competition through open nominal vote.

The decision of the faculty council is submitted to the rector, who further submits it to the university senate for confirmation regarding observance of the criteria and the competition procedure.

The final decision of the university senate is taken through open nominal vote.

Appointment is accomplished through decision of the rector and becomes effective with the first day of the following semester.

3 The competition for the teaching positions associate professor (conferenţiar universitar) and professor (profesor universitar)

The competition is based on the assessment of the conformity with the conditions specific to the teaching position (analyse of the candidates’ registration dossier) and, for those not coming from higher education, a public lecture delivered to the students in the presence of the competition commission. The theme of the lecture is established by the competition commission and is announced to the candidates 48 periods in advance.

The competition commission elaborates a report evaluating for each candidate the teaching and scientific activity, the extra-teaching activity in the interest of education, and the appreciation on the public lecture.

The chair of the competition commission presents the report in the faculty council, nominating the candidate with the best performances.

The faculty council approves the result of the competition through open nominal vote.

The decision of the faculty council is submitted to the rector, who further submits it to the university senate for confirmation regarding observance of the criteria and the competition procedure.

The final decision of the university senate is taken through open nominal vote.

The competition dossier, the report of the competition commission and all the accompanying documents are forwarded to the National Council for Attesting Titles, Diplomas and Certificates. Based on the analysis of the provided documentation, the Council pronounces its decision through open nominal vote.

Appointment is accomplished through decision of the rector following the Ministerial Order and becomes effective with the first day of the following semester.

Vacant teaching positions can be occupied temporarily, subject to annual re-confirmation, by:

  • the permanent teachers of the respective higher education institution or, 
  • associate teachers.

Appointment of associate teachers is accomplished through competition organised by the chair or the department and consisting of at least an interview and presentation of the CV.

The competition methodology is approved by the university senate.

Appointment of the associate teachers is accomplished through decision of the rector.

Professional Status

Teaching positions in higher education can be occupied with:

  1. Permanent teachers. Permanent teachers are appointed for an indefinite period of time through decision of the rector. Permanent teachers are the only one that can be elected for management positions.
  2. Associate teachers. Vacant teaching positions can be occupied temporarily, subject to annual re-confirmation, by the permanent teachers of the respective higher education institution or by associate teachers. Temporary appointment of the associate teachers is accomplished through decision of the rector.
  3. Consultant teachers. Retired profesor universitar can continue certain teaching and scientific activities as profesor universitar consultant, following the recommendation of the chair, the endorsement of the faculty council and the approval of the university senate. For this teaching position only profesor universitar that have proved remarkable teaching and scientific activity at national and international level can be recommended. Attributions of the profesor universitar consultant are established by the chair, through the job-description.

According to the existing academic needs, the higher education institutions can appoint for a limited period of time specialists with recognised value in the country and abroad as profesor asociat invitat. Appointment of the profesor asociat invitat is endorsed by the council of the department or of the faculty and is approved by the university senate.

Salaries

The criteria for salaries in higher education are:

  • teaching position
  • academic title
  • teaching norm
  • quality of the professional performance as established based on the annual individual evaluation
  • recognised seniority in education
  • specific working conditions.

Throughout a teacher’s career, salaries increase according to a matrix-type salary scale.

The basic salary is established using a fixed standard value (the value for the multiplication coefficient equal to 1) and multiplication coefficients (bigger than 1).

The multiplication coefficients depend on the teaching position and seniority in education and are set in minimum/maximum ranges.

The standard value is unique for the entire salary-scale and is updated according to the evolution of the consume prices indicator.

The basic salary is calculated as the standard value multiplied by the multiplication coefficient established within the corresponding range from the salary-scale.

The following supplements, indemnities and incentives can be added to the basic salary established.

Teachers in management, guidance and control positions benefit of specific indemnities differentiated according to the position and the working conditions.

Working Time and Holidays

The attributions of the teaching staff in higher education include the following:

  • teaching activities, seminars, practical works, practical training and evaluation activities – according to the frame curricula and the syllabi
  • activities for scientific and methodological preparation as well as other activities in the interest of education
  • scientific research, technological development, design activities and artistic creation, according to the specialisation.

The concrete activities are established in the job-description for the corresponding teaching position.

The template of the job-description is provided within the collective labour contracts – negotiated between the teachers’ trade unions and the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, the higher education institutions.

The job-description is personalised and signed following negotiations between the head of the chair/department and the teachers and it becomes an annex of the individual labour contract.

The job-description represents the basis for individual evaluation of teachers' professional performances.

The teaching norms for the teaching staff in higher education can include the following  (according the Law1/2011, Art. 287(2)):

  1. teaching activities
  2. seminars, annual projects, practical and laboratory work
  3. Coordination of bachelor final dissertation
  4. Coordination of master final dissertation
  5. Coordination of doctoral  final dissertation
  6. other teaching activities, research projects
  7. coordination of artistic or sport activities
  8. evaluation activities
  9. tutoring activities, councelling, coordination of  student activities, and students guideing in achieving of ECTS
  10. participation to councils and commissions in the interest of education.

The weekly teaching norm is quantified in conventional periods and cannot exceed 16 periods per week.

The teaching norm is established according to the frame curricula and is calculated as average weekly teaching norm, regardless of the period of the year when is effectively accomplished.

The average weekly teaching norm is calculated as the ratio of the total number of conventional periods in the job-description to the number of weeks established in the frame curriculum for all the teaching and seminar activities of the academic year.

The conventional hour is the equivalent of one teaching hour during seminars, laboratory activities, practical works or other similar activities.

In higher education the lecture-hour is the equivalent of 2 conventional periods.

In post-university education as well as in higher education with complete tuition in a foreign language (not referring to languages of the national minorities) – the lecture-hour is the equivalent of 2.5 conventional periods and the seminar-hour (or other similar activities) is the equivalent of 1.5 conventional periods.

Directors of doctoral studies benefit of 0.5 conventional periods per week for each student.

Evaluation activities are quantified in conventional periods according to the methodology approved by the university senate.

The average weekly teaching norm is established as follows (conventional periods):

  • Professor (Profesor universitar): 5-7 periods per week (minimum 4 periods lecture)
  • Associate professor (Conferenţiar universitar): 7-9 periods per week (minimum 4 periods lecture)
  • Lecturer (Lector universitar/Sef de lucrări): 9-11 periods per week (minimum 2 periods lecture)
  • Assistant lecturer (Asistent universitar): 10-11 periods per week.

​According the Law 1/2011, Art. 287 (14) and (15), for the teaching staff  that do not perform scientific research or equivalent activities, the teaching norm is increased, without over-passing aximum periods per week. All the previously exceptions mentioned are approved by the council of the faculties. In the case that a teaching norm cannot be accomplished according to the provisions of the law, the activity of the respective teaching position is completed with scientific research activities at the proposal of the head of the chair and subject to the agreement of the faculty council. The diminution of the can be maximum 1/2 of the respective teaching norm and the research hour is the equivalent of 0.5 conventional periods. Alternatively, a teacher can be transferred, temporarily and upon request, with the entire norm in scientific research within the respective chair or department. In both these cases the considered teacher preserves the permanent status over the teaching position – as obtained following appointment through open competition.

Promotion, Advancement

In higher education, the successive teaching positions may be considered as stages in the career development.

In order to advance from one teaching position to the next one, teachers have to comply with certain conditions and have to pass a competition organised by the higher education institution (open recruitment procedure).

Management positions in higher education are as follows:

  1. Management structures within university:
  • University Senat and admisistration council
  • Faculty council
  • Department council.
  1. Management positions in higher education are as follows:
  • Rector and pro-rector of the higher education institution
  • Faculty dean and pro-dean; director of the university college
  • Head  of the department.

According to the provisions of law, all management structures and management positions in higher education are elected through secret suffrage for a 4-year period.

Candidates are expected to have distinguished professional, managerial and moral qualities and to hold high teaching positions in the academic hierarchy.

Retirement and Pensions

Teachers benefit of:

  • pension for the work accomplished and age limit 
  • for loss of work capacity, as well as of
  • supplementary pension and other social insurance rights.

Family members can benefit in the conditions of the law of successor pension.

As a general rule, teachers can retire only at the end of the academic year.

Under special circumstances teachers may retire during the academic year – subject to the approval of the University Senate.

Teaching staff can continue teaching / scientific ativity in higher education after the age of retirement, with the approval of the University Senate.

According to the law, teachers at all levels of education employed over the retirement age-limit benefit of an additional allowance to their pension, corresponding to the period they have been employed over the retirement age-limit.