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Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Pupil Assessment

In vocational education and training, assessment is centred on competences, provides real feedback to students and lies at the basis of individual learning plans. The general aim of the assessment is to guide and optimize learning.

If assessment in compulsory education focuses on highlighting acquisitions in the 8 areas of key competences defined in the national curriculum – a) communication in Romanian and in the mother tongue, for national minorities, b) communication in foreign languages, c) mathematics, science and technologies, d) digital competences related to the use of the information technology as a tool for learning and knowledge, e) social and civic competences, f) entrepreneurship, g) cultural awareness and expression, h) learning to learn – in upper secondary education, assessment is centred on the acquisitions provided by the training profile which includes diversified key competences and competences that are specific to a path, profile, specialisation or qualification.

Students’ acquisitions are assessed regularly, at all subjects/modules, compulsory or optional. At the end of every semester, there is a period for assessment and consolidation of learning outcomes.  

Based on the objectives involved, there are the following types of assessment:

  • initial assessment, at the beginning of a vocational education and training programme or at the beginning of every school year, that aims to identify the relation between the students’ acquisitions, demonstrated in the assessment, and the acquisitions necessary for the successful completion, at the provided learning pace, of the training programme or/and the module or subject of the curriculum. The results of the assessment are used for the development and implementation of remedial or individual development programmes and for adapting the learning strategy to students’ identified needs;
  • formative assessment has as main objective to ensure the acquisition of the planned learning outcomes. Formative assessment accompanies the teaching-learning act at every lesson, as immediate, constructive feedback that stimulates and supports learning for the attainment of the learning objectives of a lesson. When more learning experiences accumulated after a number of lessons, considered sufficient to demonstrate more complex learning outcomes, related to students’ ability to solve theoretical and practical problems that need several stages to cover, involve specific knowledge, analysis, synthesis and judging a given context, and appropriate skills and aptitudes to demonstrate these acquisitions, cumulative assessments are carried out for a formative purpose. The results of these assessments provide data on the evolution of students’ achievements and how these achievements related to the learning outcomes provided by the vocational training standards of the vocational education and training programme. Based on findings, decisions are made on the implementation of individual programmes for students, with a remedial or development purpose.
  • summative assessment is carried out at the end of every semester or, accordingly, at the end of a module. The role of summative assessment is to certify internally that the learning outcomes provided by the vocational training standard of a qualification and translated into curricula, associated to the specialised module or to a subject of study have been attained. For some subjects of study or specialised modules, relevant to the goals of the vocational education and training programme, written semester tests are taken as established by an Order of the National Education Minister. Most of these summative assessments are planned, designed and conducted internally by teachers who ensured teaching and learning. For specialised modules, delivered as practical traineeship at partner companies/public institutions, summative assessment is carried out in the conditions of a real work environment, of a possible workplace, and it is designed together by the traineeship guide, the subject teacher and the person responsible for students’ practical training appointed by the partner company/public institution. Summative assessments are related to the assessment standards for each subject, area of study, and training module respectively, explicitly or implicitly formulated by the curricular documents.      

The assessment methods and tools are chosen by each teacher in relation with the objectives of the assessment and are found in the recommendations of curricular documents. Some of the most usual assessment methods are oral assessment, written tests, practical tests, and also projects, papers, investigations, portfolios and others. The assessment tools are developed and approved, usually, at school department level or in some situations they are developed by the Ministry of National Education and the county school inspectorates.

In vocational education and training, students’ achievements for each subject and specialised module respectively are judged with marks from 10 to 1. They are judged as insufficient for marks from 1 to 4, sufficient for marks from 5 to 6, good for marks of 7 and 8, very good for marks of 9 and 10. Marks are obligatorily registered. Teachers write the mark in the class catalogue, in the space corresponding to their subject/module indicating also the date. The mark and the date at which the mark was awarded are also written in the student’s mark notebook. The data regarding students’ school achievements, for the entire schooling period, are found in catalogues, in the matriculation registry and in special registries for certificates – school documents with a permanently archive regime at school level, and subsequently at the State Archives.

For each subject, compulsory or optional, at the end of each semester and at the end of the school year, teachers have to conclude the school situation of each student. The school situation for specialised modules is concluded at the end of each module. To conclude the school situation means to calculate and register in the school documents the average mark at the end of the semester and the school year respectively. The semester averages for those subjects where no semester written papers are taken are calculated as arithmetic average of the marks awarded and are expressed with an integer obtained by rounding. For subjects where semester written papers are taken – theses – the semester average is calculated with a 25% weight for the mark of the thesis.  The semester average can be calculated only if students were assessed and were awarded a minimum number of marks provided by the Rules for the organisation and functioning of schools. The annual average for a subject is the arithmetic average of the semester averages expressed by a number with two decimals without rounding.

For modules, there is a module final average, with no semester averages; the average is calculated as arithmetic average of the marks awarded, with two decimals without rounding.

Students’ behaviour is also marked. The marks are awarded by the class teacher after consulting the other teachers who teach his class. Marks for behaviour lower than 7 are approved by the Teachers’ Council of the school.

At the end of every school year, students in each class/year of study who obtained the best school results, reflected by the general average and the average 10 for behaviour, are awarded prizes at an official ceremony.

Data on students’ school achievements are reported by every school regularly, usually at the end of each semester and school year, to the County/Bucharest School Inspectorates. School also have the obligation to report, observing the specific statistics research methodology, to the local branch of the National Institute of Statistics, data and information on the enrolment of students in vocational education and training and students’ achievements.

A multiple criteria analysis of the school’s activity, including students’ achievements, is done by the Administration Council and made public by the head teacher of the school. At county and national level such analyses are done by the County/Bucharest School Inspectorates and the Ministry of National Education. The National Institute of Statistics makes and publishes annual reports on the national education and training system, which include data on students’ achievements.

Progression of Pupils

The general and specific rules on assessment, marks and students’ progression are established by the Rules for the organisation and functioning of schools (Minister Order 4925/2005) and by Orders of the Minister of National Education on the organisation of final examinations.

In vocational education and training, students can progress from one class/year of study to the next - in the same cycle or educational level – if for every subject they have studied and every module, in the school year considered, they got at least the final average 5 and at least the average 6 for behaviour. Students whose school situation cannot be concluded at one or more subjects for any of the following reasons are postponed, for a semester or a year: they missed, with or without a good reason, at least 50% of the classes provided for those subjects in a semester, this being the reason for which they could not be assessed and their school situation could not be concluded; they have been exempted from school attendance by the school’s head teacher for the period of their participation in professional, cultural, artistic and sports festivals and competitions, national or international; they benefitted from a scholarship recognised by the Ministry of National Education; they attended school, for a definite period, in other countries.

Students who were postponed for the 1st semester can have their school situation concluded in the first four weeks since the beginning of the 2nd semester, a period when they are assessed and awarded marks.  The conclusion of the school situation of students who were postponed for the 2nd semester or for the whole year is done before the re-examination session based on a timetable established by the management of every school. Postponed students who do not pass at most two subjects/modules can participate in the re-examination session. The conclusion of the school situations of postponed students and the re-examinations are organised by every school by observing the provisions of the Rules for the organisation and functioning of schools. Students who do not get at least the annual average of 5 at a subject/module are failed. Students who do not fail more than two subjects/modules have the possibility to pass by taking the re-examination organised at the end of every school year. The period of re-examinations is established, for every school year, by Order of the Minister of National Education. The re-examinations allow students to demonstrate they acquired the learning outcomes provided by the curriculum of a subject/module, at least at the minimal level corresponding to the mark 5, so as to pass. The re-examination consists in assessing students who failed with adequate tests for the specificity of a subject/module: written, oral and practical tests.

The re-examination is taken before a commission of teachers from the school, established by a decision of the head teacher, made of a chair and two examining members, one of the two members being the teacher who taught the subject or the module at which the re-examination is taken.

In most of the cases, there is a combination of oral test and written tests, except for those subjects where practical activities are predominant (such as those included in the curricular area Technologies). A written test lasts for 90 minutes, and students can choose one of the two topics proposed by the commission. To establish the topic of the oral examination, students take out a note of the several notes prepared for the examination by the members of the commission. Students can change the examination note at most twice, with a corresponding decrease of the maximum final mark that can be awarded. During the oral test, students present their answers to the questions on the note and answer the examiners’ questions. Each teacher, member of the examination commission, gives a mark independently for each test and calculates the final rounded average. The final mark of the re-examination is the rounded arithmetic average of the final marks awarded by the teachers – when the difference between the two marks is less than 1 point; in case the differences are more than 1, the mediation between teachers is ensured by the chair of the commission. The final mark of the re-examination is the final annual mark for that subject/module and is registered in the re-examination file, and in the school documents – the class catalogue and the matriculation registry. Students who do not pass the re-examination at a single subject (final average lower than 5) can be re-examined again before the beginning of the school year – at the request of parents and with the approval of the head teacher.

Students who are in one of the following situations at the end of the school year have to repeat the year: students who got the annual average mark lower than 5 at more than two subjects; students who got the annual average mark lower than 6 for behaviour; students who do not pass the re-examinations; postponed students who do not pass in the session for the conclusion of the school situation and also in the re-examination session at a subject at least; expelled students, who have the right to be re-enrolled.

Students who repeat a school year can be matriculated in the corresponding grade in the next school year in the same school or in other school, within the limit of the number of students per class established by the Law of Education and other specific provisions. Students in vocational education and training can repeat a school year at most twice, and a particular grade can be repeated at most once.

The students’ school situation at the end of the semesters and of the school year is validated by the Teachers’ Council. The secretary of the Teachers’ Council indicates in the record the students’ school situation for every class, nominating the students who pass, are re-examined, repeat a year and are postponed. The school situation of students who are re-examined, repeat a year and are postponed is communicated to their parents, at the latest after 10 days since the end of the semester or school year; parents must also be informed on the period of re-examination. Although this is not explicitly provided by the legislation, most schools organise during summer holidays intensive periods of remedial education to support students who have to take re-examinations at one or two subjects.

Students in vocational education and training participate in national and international assessments and tests, in accordance with their specific methodologies.

Certification

According to the regulations in force, the assessment process in vocational education and training is designed as an integral part of the initial education and training process in school education.

At the same time, assessment and certification in vocational education and training are adequate both to the goals and objectives specific to school education, whose graduates can go either to tertiary education, or to the labour market, and to the objectives specific to lifelong learning. In this context, at the basis of certifications lies the demonstration of competences explicitly specified in vocational training standards.

An important aspect of assessment in vocational education and training is to ensure coherence between current assessment and assessment for a certification purpose, with the help of the principle of complementary goals and objectives for the two forms of assessment. Therefore, current, ongoing, internal assessment contributes to the development of vocational competences provided as learning outcomes (key competences, general technical competence units, specialised technical competence units) in the vocational training standard. This is achieved both in the school context, by teachers, and at the company (in the case of practical training) by teachers and tutors (specialists appointed by the company to guide and watch practical training).

Summative assessment for a certification purpose takes place at the end of an initial vocational training programme and is regulated with methodologies approved by Order of the Minister of National Education.

At present, for a transition period, the organisation of examinations for the certification of a professional qualification for graduates of vocational education and training is regulated as follows:

  1. Graduates of high-school, the technological path, graduates of post-secondary education (tertiary non-university education) and graduates of vocational training programmes organised in compliance with the Law of Education 84/1995, with its subsequent changes and completions, take the examination for the certification of professional qualification in compliance with the provisions of the Order of the Education, Research and Youth Minister 5172/29.08.2008 on the approval of the Methodology for the organisation of examinations  for the certification of professional qualification of graduates of vocational education and training at school education level.
  2. Graduates of the lower cycle of high-school who attended and completed their practical training take the certification examination in compliance with the Order of the Education, Research Youth and Sports Minister 5222/29.08.2011 on the approval of the Methodology for the organisation of examinations for the certification of professional qualification of graduates of the lower cycle of high-school who completed their practical training.
  3. Graduates of vocational education with two years duration take the certification examination in compliance with the provisions of Order of the Minister of National Education on the approval of the Methodology for the organisation of examinations for the certification of professional qualification of graduates of vocational education with two years duration.

The normative framework for the organisation of certification examinations has the following main regulation elements:

  • The organisation of examinations for the certification of professional qualification is methodologically coordinated, at national level, by the National Commission for Assessment and Certification - NCAC, established every school year and functioning in the Ministry of National Education. Locally, at county level,   the County Commissions for Assessment and Certification are responsible for the organisation of Examination Centres and the coordination of certification examinations.
  • The County Commissions for Assessment and Certification are made of the specialist inspector for vocational education and training and representatives of stakeholders: the chair of the Local Committee for the Development of Social Partnership in Vocational Training or his representative, the director of the County Employment Agency or his representative, representatives of other social partners as deputy chairs, so as at least half of them are representatives of social partners.
  • The Examination Centres are organised in schools based on a decision of the general school inspector; they can ensure, at their own premises or at partner companies/public institutions, the best conditions for the organisation of examination tests, usually as close as possible to the work conditions in companies;  they can ensure the best conditions for the specific activities of the examination commissions, as well as the security of the documents of the commission; their experience in vocational training is recognised  in the local labour market.
  • The Commissions in the Examination Centres are made of the chair – the head teacher/deputy head teacher of the school, a specialist teacher in the area of professional qualifications for which the certification examination is taken, the deputy chair – the representative of companies for one of the certified professional qualifications or, in case there is none, a representative of the Local Committee for the Development  of Social Partnership in Vocational Training or a representative of the County Employment Agency, accordingly, secretary – secretary of the school where the Examination Centre is organised or a specialist teacher from that school, assessor members – external assessors for every professional qualification, among whom representatives of partner companies/public institutions in students’ practical training, authorised assessors, external to he school.
  • In each Examination Centre, the activity of the Examination Commission is observed and evaluated by a representative appointed by the County/Bucharest Commission for Assessment and Certification as monitor of the quality of the certification examination, nominated in the decision for the establishment of the Examination Commission of that Centre.
  • The tests of the certification examinations are adequate to the qualification level.  

The certification examination for the award of the Qualification Certificate Level 3 consists in a practical test, the completion of a project during the last semester of training and an oral test, the presentation and argumentation of the project. The practical test consists in completing a project with the aim to highlight the specific activation, based on the topic of the project, of the general technical competence units, specialised technical competence units and key competences, with significance for the demonstration, in a certification examination certification, of the award of qualification. The completion of the one semester project by the applicant, during his training period, and its oral presentation in the examination situation pursue qualification specific competences, in accordance with the vocational training standard. The oral test, when the project is presented, is a component of the certification examination and its aim is for the applicant to demonstrate the project content, in the examination situation, with the help of key competences, provided by the vocational training standard (for example: oral communication), in an integrated manner.

Access to the certification examination for professional qualification level 3 is ensured by the completion of high-school education, the technological path, for the award of the Professional Qualification Certificate Level 3 (4EQF).

The applicants who are successful at the certification examination are awarded the Professional Qualification Certificate and the descriptive supplement of the certificate.

The Professional Qualification Certificate ensures the graduates’ access to the labour market. The Professional Qualification Certificate Level 3 (4EQF) enables graduates to enrol for completing their high-school education, the technological path, and some specialised modules are recognised in tertiary education.

Graduates of high-school education, the technological path, take the Baccalaureate examination in the conditions provided by law, and the success at the Baccalaureate is a condition for the admission examination in higher education.