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Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Pupil Assessment

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), the purpose of the pupils’ evaluation is to guide and optimize learning. All pupils’ evaluations of are made based on the national evaluation standards set in the schooling programmes for each subject. The results of the pupils’ evaluations are expresses, by qualifiers, in the primary education. Teacher’s use and compliance with the national evaluation standards shall be verified by school inspections. Marking without observing and using national standards and evaluation methodologies shall be sanctioned according to the provisions of the law.

Pupils’ evaluation focuses on competences, provides pupils with real feedback and is the basis of the individual schooling plans.

Pupils with learning disabilities must be provided with remedial education.

At the end of the preparatory grade, the responsible teacher draws up, based on a methodology elaborated by the Ministry of National Education a report for the evaluation of the physical, social, emotional and cognitive development of language and communication, as well as the development of learning abilities and attitudes.

The general and specific rules regarding the evaluation, assessment and progression of the pupils are established by the Ministry of National Education  within the Regulation for Organisation and Functioning of Pre-universitary Education Institutions (Ministerial Order 4925/2005).

Pupils’ evaluation has to be performed on a regular basis for all subjects (compulsory and optional) during the semesters by the teachers working with the class (continuous evaluation). Each semester includes periods dedicated to the consolidation and evaluation of the competences acquired by the pupils (formative and summative evaluations) decided by the teachers working with the class. Usually these periods are established towards the end of the semester and teachers foresee: to improve the teaching-learning process results; to support systematisation of the knowledge acquired; to stimulate the performances of low and high achievers.

Evaluation methods and instruments are established by the teacher according to the age and psychological particularities of the pupils and taking the specificity of the subject into consideration.

These can include oral questioning, written papers, practical activities, reports and projects, interviews, portfolios, as well as other instruments elaborated by the school’s chairs/departments and approved by the head of school or elaborated by the Ministry of National Education and the County School Inspectorates.

During primary education, each evaluation (continuous, formative or summative) of the pupils’ performances for each subject is materialised in a qualitative mark on a 4-level scale: insufficient, sufficient, good and very good. However, the final semester and school year qualitative mark for each subject has to be within the 4-level scale mentioned above. Evaluation of the pupils is performed according to the curricular performance standards established for each subject and grade.

The mark assigned by the teachers following each evaluation has to be communicated to the pupils.

The teachers have also the obligation to immediately register the mark in the class’ index and the pupils’ personal indexes under the corresponding subject. At the end of each semester and of the school year the final average marks for each subject are registered in the class’ index and the pupils’ personal indexes. The school year average final marks for each subject are also registered in the general school matriculation index. The official school record of the pupils’ results during all schooling period comprises the classes’ indexes and the school matriculation index – official documents that are permanently archived by the school or, later on, by the State’s Archives.

The number of marks assigned during a semester to each pupil for each subject has to be at least equal to the number of classes per week established by the curriculum frameworks for the given subject and grade.

At the end of each semester and at the end of the school year teachers have the obligation to conclude the academic situation of each pupil for each subject. Conclusion of the academic situation consists of calculating/establishing and registering in the school records the final average mark/qualitative mark for each subject.

In primary education, taking into account that marks are qualitative, the teachers establish the final average marks as follows:

  • To establish the semester final average mark for each subject: following summative evaluations performed during the consolidation and evaluation period, teachers choose one of the two marks assigned with the highest frequency during continuous evaluation;
  • To establish the school year final average mark for each subject: teachers choose between one of the semester average marks according to the following criteria: the progress/regress in the pupil’s performance; the effort-performance ratio; the evolution of the pupil’s motivation, and accomplishment of the supplementary training/recovering programme established by the teacher.

Taking the results of the continuous evaluations into consideration, teachers can decide on performing remedial education for the low achievers. Remedial education can be accomplished either within the school-based curriculum (further study classes) and/or extra-curricular activities or during afternoon activities in the schools that organise such activities. Alternatively, teachers can rely on differentiated activities performed during the daily normal programme.

Progression of Pupils

In primary education, pupils can progress from one grade to the next one if for each subject studied in the given grade their school year final average qualitative mark is at least sufficient.

Are declared postponed for the semester/school year pupils for which the academic situation for one or more subjects cannot be concluded due to either of the following reasons:

  • They have been registered during the semester or the school year with a number of absences exceeding 50% of the total number of classes for the given subject(s) and as a consequence they could not be evaluated;
  • They have been released of participating to lessons by the head of school during the participation to festivals or professional, cultural, arts or sports national or international contests;
  • They have benefited of a study scholarships that is recognised by the Ministry of National Education;
  • They have been studying for a given period of time abroad.

The academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the first semester has to be concluded during the first four weeks of the second semester.

The academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the second semester or for the school year has to be concluded during the summer vacation in a period established by the head of school, previous to the second examination session (see below). Conclusion of the academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the semester or the school year has to be accomplished according to the rules of the second examination.

Pupils that do not attain the minimum sufficient school year final average mark to a given subject are declared failed for the considered subject. Pupils that failed no more than two subjects are given the possibility to take a second examination during the summer vacation in a period established by the Ministry of National Education. It is mandatory that the pupils prepare for the second examination all the content set by the syllabus for the given subject and grade.

The second examination is performed by an exam commission nominated by the head of school and consisting of a chair and two teachers – one of them being the teacher that works with the examined pupil(s). Subject to the decision of the head of school, the second examination consists of two out of the following possible three assessments: an oral questioning, a written paper and a practical activity. In most cases the combination used is the oral questioning and the written paper – except for the subjects that are predominantly based on practical activities (such as the ones included in the curricular area Technologies). The written paper takes 45 minutes for pupils in primary education and the pupils are allowed to choose between two different items. For the oral questioning pupils extract randomly an exam-question from the ones prepared by the commission. Pupils are allowed to change the exam-question twice, subject to the corresponding diminishing of the mark for each change. During the oral questioning pupils present the answers for the exam-question; teachers are allowed to support the pupil through supplementary orientation-questions. Each teacher member of the exam commission assigns independently a mark for each assessment and a final mark for the second examination. Considering that for primary education marks are qualitative, the final result of the second examination is established by the exam commission based on consultations between its members. The final mark assigned for the second examination becomes the school year final average mark for the given subject and is recorded in the school official documents – the class’ index and the general school matriculation index. Pupils that fail the second examination to only one subject (final mark insufficient) may be allowed, upon the written request of the parents and subject to the decision of the head of school, to sit a re-examination before the start of the school year.

According to the in-force legislation pupils are declared repeaters if they are in one of the following situations by the beginning of the school year:

  • Pupils that were given the final average mark insufficient in more than two subjects (no second examination allowed in this case);
  • Pupils that were given the final average mark insufficient for behaviour (separately marked by the class’ teacher/tutor teacher);
  • Pupils that failed one or two subjects and that either did not sit or did not pass the second examination for at least one subject;
  • Postponed pupils that did not sit the examination necessary for conclusion of their academic situation for at least one subject;
  • Pupils that were expelled (with re-matriculation right) due to extremely bad behaviour (not applicable during compulsory education).

Repeaters can re-matriculate in the corresponding grade the following school year in the same school or in a different one.

For the compulsory education sequence, individuals exceeding with more than 2 years the normal age of a given grade are considered in a school abandon situation. For individuals in a school abandon situation, education within the compulsory sequence can be provided in other forms than day-classes – evening classes, part-time education, distance learning – according to the rules established by the Ministry of National Education. The Ministry of National Education can also approve organisation of courses for individuals older than 14 that did not complete primary education (second chance education).

The Teachers’ council validates in the plenary sessions organised at the end of the semester/school year the overall academic situation of all pupils as presented by the classes’ teachers/tutor teachers. The secretary of the teachers’ council registers in the plenary sessions’ records the academic situation of the pupils by class, nominating the promoted, the failed, the repeaters and the postponed pupils.

The academic situation of the failed, the repeaters and the postponed pupils is communicated in writing by the class’ teacher/tutor teacher to the pupil’s parents or legally appointed guardians, at the latest 10 days after the conclusion of the semester/school year; parents or legally appointed guardians have also to be informed on the periods in which the second examination takes place.

Most schools organise intensive remedial education periods during the summer vacation for the pupils that failed one or two subjects in order to support their preparation for the second examination.

By the end of the first semester and of the school year every school has the obligation to report the statistical situation of the pupils – both to the County School Inspectorate and the county branch of the National Institute of the Statistics. The head of school has to mention and analyse the statistical situation of the pupils in his/her semester/school year report. The statistical situations are centralised by the National Institute for Statistics and the Ministry of National Education and become part of the Statistical Yearbook and of the annual evaluation report of the Ministry of National Education.

Certification

There are neither a leaving examination nor a formal certification at the end of primary education, pupils graduating primary education being promoted directly into gimnaziu (grades V to VIII).

In certain cases (individuals in a school abandon situation, pupils continuing their studies abroad, etc.) the school issues a copy from the general school matriculation index – the matriculation fiche (Foaia matricolă) listing all the subjects and marks for each promoted school year – upon written request.