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Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Pupil Assessment

Pupils’ assessment has to be performed on a regular basis for all subjects (compulsory and optional) during the semesters by the teachers working with the class. Each semester includes periods dedicated to the consolidation and assessment of the competences acquired by pupils (formative and summative assessments) established by the teachers working with the class. For some subjects that are part of the common core curriculum and are established yearly through Order of Minister, pupils have to undertake a semester summative written paper covering all the content taught during the semester. The semester consolidation and assessment periods are usually established towards the end of the semester.

Assessment methods and instruments are established by teachers according to the psychological particularities of their pupils and taking the specificity of the subject into consideration. These can include oral questioning, written papers, practical activities, reports and projects, interviews, portfolios, as well as other instruments developed by the school’s chairs/departments and approved by the head of school, or developed by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and the County School Inspectorates.In upper secondary education, the assessment of pupils’ performance at each subject is materialised in marks on a 10-level scale (from 1 to 10), corresponding roughly to the following achievement levels: 1.00 to 4.00 – insufficient; 5.00 to 6.99 – sufficient; 7.00 to 8.99 – good and 9.00 to 10 – very good.

The teachers have the obligation to immediately register the marks in the class book and in the pupil personal books under the corresponding subject and mentioning the date.The official results of the pupils throughout the schooling are recorded in the class books and in the school register – official documents that are permanently archived by the school or, later on, by the State’s Archives.

At the end of each semester and at the end of the school year, teachers have the obligation to conclude the academic situation of each pupil for each subject (compulsory or optional). Conclusion of the academic situation consists of calculating and registering in the school records the final average mark for each subject (rounded-up for the semester final average mark). The mark obtained at the semester summative written paper counts for 25% of the semester final average mark for a particular subject. The semester final average mark is considered legally constituted if it is calculated based on the minimum number of marks set by the Rules for the Organization and Operation of Schools.

Final marks for behaviour that are below 7 have to be decided by the Teachers’ Council of the school. In secondary education, at the end of each year, an official ceremony is organized where the class teachers (tutors) award distinctions to the three pupils of each class that have obtained the highest overall final average marks during the school year and 10 for behaviour.

In upper secondary education, pupils can progress from one grade to the next one – within the same education level/cycle – if for each subject studied in the school year they obtained a final average mark of at least 5.00 and at least 6.00 for behavior.

By the end of the first semester and of the school year, every school has the obligation to report the statistical situation of pupils – both to the County School Inspectorate and to the county office of the National Institute of Statistics. The head teacher has to present and analyse the statistical situation of pupils in his/her semester/annual report. The statistical situations are centralised by the National Institute of Statistics and the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and become part of the Statistical Yearbook and of the annual evaluation report of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports.

Progression of Pupils

The general and specific rules regarding the evaluation, assessment and progression of the pupils are established within the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently modified and completed), the Regulation for Organisation and Functioning of Pre-University Education Institutions (Ministerial Order 4925/2005) and Orders of the Minister of Education, Research, Youth and Sports related to the final exams.

In secondary education, pupils can progress from one grade to the next one – within the same education level/cycle – if for each subject studied in the given grade their school year final average mark is at least 5.00 and at leas 6.00 for behavior. Are declared postponed for the semester/school year pupils for whom the academic situation for one or more subjects cannot be concluded due to either of the following reasons: they have been registered during the semester or the school year with a number of absences exceeding 50% of the total number of classes for the given subject(s) and as a consequence they could not be evaluated; they have been released of participating to lessons by the head of school during the participation to festivals or professional, cultural, arts or sports national or international contests;
They have benefited of a study scholarships that is recognised by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports; they have been studying for a given period of time abroad.

The academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the first semester has to be concluded during the first four weeks of the second semester. The academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the second semester or for the school year has to be concluded during the summer vacation in a period established by the head of school, previous to the second examination session (see below). Conclusion of the academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the semester or the school year has to be accomplished according to the rules of the second examination.

Pupils that do not attain the minimum 5.00 school year final average mark to a given subject are declared failed for the considered subject. Pupils that failed no more than two subjects are given the possibility to take a second examination during the summer vacation in a period established by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports. It is mandatory that the pupils prepare for the second examination all the content set by the syllabus for the given subject and grade. The second examination is performed by an exam commission nominated by the head of school and consisting of a chair and two teachers – one of them being the teacher that works with the examined pupil(s). Subject to the decision of the head of school, the second examination consists of two out of the following possible three assessments: an oral questioning, a written paper and a practical activity. In most cases the combination used is the oral questioning and the written paper – except for the subjects that are predominantly based on practical activities (such as the ones included in the curricular area Technologies). The written paper takes 90 minutes and pupils are allowed to choose between two different items. For the oral questioning pupils extract randomly an exam-question from the ones prepared by the commission. Pupils are allowed to change the exam-question twice, subject to the corresponding diminishing of the mark for each change. During the oral questioning pupils present the answers for the exam-question; teachers are allowed to support the pupil through supplementary orientation-questions.

Each teacher member of the exam commission assigns independently a mark for each assessment and calculates the final rounded-up average mark. The final mark of the second examination is the rounded-up mathematical mean of the final average marks assigned by the two teachers – subject to the condition that the difference between the two marks is less than 1; otherwise the chair of the exam commission ensures mediation between the two teachers. The final mark assigned for the second examination becomes the school year final average mark for the given subject and is recorded in the school official documents – the class’ index and the general school matriculation index. Pupils that fail the second examination to only one subject (final mark less than 5.00) may be allowed, upon the written request of the parents and subject to the decision of the head of school, to sit a re-examination before the start of the school year.

According to the in-force legislation pupils are declared repeaters if they are in one of the following situations by the end of the school year: pupils that were given the final average marks less than 5.00 in more than two subjects (no second examination allowed in this case); pupils that were given the final average mark less than 6.00 for behaviour (less than 7.00 in pedagogical and theological high schools); pupils that failed and that either did not sit or did not pass the second examination; postponed pupils that did not pass the examination necessary for conclusion of their academic situation, neither the “second examination” for at least one subject; pupils that were expelled (with re-matriculation right) due to extremely bad behavior (not applicable during compulsory education – grades I to X).

Repeaters can re-matriculate in the corresponding grade the following school year in the same school or in a different one, subject to the limit established by the Education Law for the maximum number of pupils per class. For the upper secondary education sequence, individuals exceeding with more than 2 years the normal age of a given grade are considered in a school abandon situation.

The teachers’ council validates in the plenary sessions organised at the end of the semester/school year the overall academic situation of all pupils as presented by the classes’ tutor teachers. The secretary of the teachers’ council registers in the plenary sessions’ records the academic situation of the pupils by class, nominating the promoted, the failed, the repeaters and the postponed pupils. The academic situation of the failed, the repeaters and the postponed pupils is communicated in writing by the class’ tutor teacher to the pupil’s parents or legally appointed guardians, at the latest 10 days after the conclusion of the semester/school year; parents or legally appointed guardians have also to be informed on the periods in which the second examination takes place. Although not specifically set by the legislation, most schools organise intensive remedial education periods during the summer vacation for the pupils that failed one or two subjects in order to support their preparation for the second examination.

By the end of the first semester and of the school year every school has the obligation to report the statistical situation of the pupils – both to the County School Inspectorate and the county branch of the National Institute of the Statistics. The head of school has to mention and analyse the statistical situation of the pupils in his/her semester/school year report. The statistical situations are centralised by the National Institute for Statistics and the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and become part of the Statistical Yearbook and of the annual evaluation report of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports.

Certification

High school education ends with a national examination (examen de bacalaureat), diversified according to the path, profile and specialisation, and the options of candidates. According to the provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently modified and completed), the bacalaureat examination is a national external examination.

In order to pass the bacalaureat examination, candidates have to obtain at least the mark 5 at each test and the final average mark has to be at least 6. Successful candidates receive diploma de bacalaureat issued by the school and listing the marks obtained at each test as well as the average final mark of the exam. Diploma de bacalaureat confers to the holder the right to continue their studies in higher education, according to the criteria established by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and higher education institutions.

High school graduates that do not pass the national exam (examenul de bacalaureat) may receive upon request a certificate attesting that they have graduated (completed) the high school. This certificate confers to the holder the right to continue their studies in post-secondary non-tertiary education, according to the general admission criteria established by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and the specific admission criteria established by educational institutions.