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Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

General Administration at Local Level

According to the in-force legislation, all the public schools buildings are the property of the local public domains and public Pre-tertiary education is financed from the local budgets (town, commune; county – only for special education). However, certain costs are supported from the state-budget through the County School Inspectorates budgets.

To ensure equal access to education and training, the authorities of the local public administration, based on the endorsement of the School Inspectorates, approves the organisation, functioning and, accordingly, the dissolution of some educational structures without legal person statute – as parts of a school with a legal person statute – and subordinated to the same main spending institution, under the law.

The authorities of the local public administration ensure, under the law, that school education functions properly in the administrative units where they have the authority.

Failure of the authorities of the local public administration to fulfil their obligations with regard to the organisation and functioning of school education is sanctioned in compliance with the law.

Funding of schools at school education level includes the basic funding, the complementary funding and the additional funding.

The state provides the basic funding for all children in pre-primary education and for all students in primary education, gimnaziu education, vocational education and high-school education, for accredited public, private and confessional education, as well as for students in public special post-secondary education. Basic funding is provided within the limits of the standard cost per student/child, according to the Methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education.

In private school education, tuition fees are set by the Administration Council of every institution or school, under the law.

Educational Institutions, Administration, Management

Schools with a legal person statute are governed by the Administration Councils, the head teachers and the deputy head teachers, accordingly. In carrying out their responsibilities, the Administration Councils and the head teachers work together with the Teachers’ Council, the Parents’ Committee and the authorities of the local public administration. In public schools, the Administration Council is a management body and has 7, 9 or 13 members.

The teachers' council of the school comprises all teaching staff of the school, regardless their specific employment status (permanent or substitute teachers), and is chaired by the head of school. Auxiliary teaching staff (support personnel; teachers' assistants) can participate in the teachers’ council meetings when issues regarding their activity are discussed. Subject to the topics of the meetings, the head of school can also invite representatives of the parents, of the pupils' consultative council, of the local public administration authorities, etc. Participation of the teachers to the meetings of the teachers' council is compulsory.

The administration council of the school, with decision role in the administrative area, comprises 5 to 11 members and is chaired by the head of school. According to the provisions of the law, the members of the administration council are as follows: the head of school, the deputy head(s) of school, the chief accountant, elected representatives of the teachers, the representative of the parents and of the local public administration authority (town, commune). The representative of the teachers’ union participates as an observer to the administration council meetings. The administration council also includes representatives of the economic agents that ensure practical training of the pupils. The high schools and post-high schools administration councils include representatives of the pupils/students. The kindergartens or primary schools that do not have full legal personality are affiliated and coordinated by another school but nominate 1 or 2 teaches in the administration council of the coordinating school.

Members of the administration council co-ordinate and assume responsibilities for various domains, as a result of the delegation of managerial responsibilities by the school heads. They make proposals to administration council concerning various commissions and working groups with specific responsibilities in schools.

Universities and other higher education institutions are autonomous and are guaranteed by the law the right to establish and implement their own development policies, within the general provisions of the in-force legislation. The Ministry of National Education coordinates the activity of the universities and other higher education institutions, complying with the principles of university autonomy. The university autonomy is correlated with the principle of personal and public accountability for the quality of the entire teaching and scientific research activity accomplished by the higher education institution.

From the financing point of view, the university autonomy is accomplished through the right to manage the funds from the state-budget and other sources, according to the provisions of the law and personal accountability. The entire material basis of higher education is the property of and administrated by the higher education institutions.

The management structures at the higher education level are the university senate, the faculty council, the college council, the department council and the chair bureau. The higher education institution is managed by the university senate chaired by the rector. Each faculty of the higher education institution designates representatives in the university senate – academic staff and students, according to the provisions of the law and of the University Charter. In the university senate students are represented in proportion of 1/4 of the total number of members of the senate. Deans of faculties and directors of departments and colleges are members of the university senate. Operational management of the higher education institutions is ensured by the university senate bureau chaired by the rector and comprising the pro-rector(s), the scientific secretary, the general administrative director and a representative of the students, member of the senate. Except for the general administrative director, all other members are elected by the senate. According to the provisions of the University Charter, the senate can include in its bureau deans or department/colleges directors.

The faculty council is chaired by the dean and is elected by the permanently employed academic staff and researchers holding a PhD degree from the departments and the chairs subordinated to the faculty. In the faculty council students are represented in proportion of 1/4 of the total number of members of the council. The department council is chaired by the department director and is constituted based on the university senate or faculty council decision. The chair is the basic structural unit of the faculty or department and function with minimum 15 teaching positions. Management of the chair is ensured by the chair bureau, comprising the chair head and minimum 2 elected members from the corresponding chair.

All the management structures and positions of higher education institutions are elected through secret suffrage for a 4-year period, according to the provisions of the law and of the University Charter. A person can not hold the rector/dean position for more than 2 successive mandates. The specific attributions and competences of the management structures and positions are established through the University Charter, according to the provisions of the law. The management positions in the higher education institutions, except for the rector, are confirmed by the university senates. The rector is elected by the senate and is confirmed through Ministerial Order. The general administrative director is appointed through open recruitment procedure.  

Internal and External Consultation

The participation to the decision-making process of the pupils/students, teaching staff, representatives of the social partners (teachers’ unions, professional associations, students’ unions, etc.) and players in society at large (parents, local public administration authorities, economic agents, religious cults, etc.) is guaranteed at all education levels of the system. The legislation also establishes the organisation and functioning of various external consultative bodies, stating the domains in which consultation is mandatory. In various administrative matters the documents issued by the administrative bodies produce the envisaged legal effects only if endorsed by the representatives of the external consultative bodies established by the law.

Internal Consultation

At the school level, internal consultation process and participation of the pupils and teaching staff to the decision-making process is ensured through the pupils’ council, the teachers’ council and the administration council.

Participation of students, teaching staff and researchers in the decision-making process at the level of higher education institutions is guaranteed by the national legislation. All the management structures and positions of higher education institutions are elected through secret suffrage for a 4-year period, according to the provisions of the law and of the University Charter. Students are represented in proportion of 1/4 of the total number of members of the university senate and faculties councils respectively. The senate elects one of its student-members in the senate bureau – the operational management body of the higher education institution.  

Consultation involving Players in Society at Large

In 2006 was founded The National Students Council as advisory body of the ministry. It works on the Regulation of organization and functioning of the National Students Council, adopted by Order of Minister. The Executive Office of the National Council of Students is comprised of 11 members (President, Vice-president 8 - democratically elected in the regions of development, 2 executive secretary). The 8 Vice-presidents are presidents in the regions of origin.

At the school level, parents’ support and consultation is ensured through the council of parents’ representatives, whilst parents’ participation to the decision-making process is ensured through the administration council.

The class parents' committee is elected every year in the general assembly of all pupils' parents in that class and comprises: a chair, a member and a treasurer. The class parents' committee represents the interests of the parents in the general school parents’ assembly, the council of parents’ representatives and the teachers’ council. Communication between the class parents' committee and the school is ensured by the tutor-teacher.

The general school parents' assembly comprises all the chairs of the class parents' committees in the school and elects every 2-3 years the council of parents' representatives and the censors' commission.

Local public administration authorities (town, commune and, only for special education, county level) are responsible for the financing of most of the schools' activities and for the maintenance of the buildings. In order to have a clear understanding of the schools' problems and to directly contribute to the management of the school, local public administration authorities designate a representative (voting-member) in each school's administration council. However, school-community relationship is not restricted to this framework and specific relations, more informal, develop in order to respond to various needs of the school and of the community respectively.

Participation of the community in the decision-making process at the county level is ensured through the consultative councils of the County School Inspectorates and the Commities for the  Development of Social Partnership in Vocational Training,

The Consultative Council of the County School Inspectorate comprises heads of schools, highly estimated teachers and professors, representatives of the parents, of the local public administration authorities, of the economic agents and of other social partners. The chair of the Consultative Council is elected from its members through secret suffrage.

Considering that special attention is required in the consultation process for the projection and development of the TVET, the Commities for the  Development of Social Partnership in Vocational Training were established in each county through Ministerial Order. These are consultative bodies cooperating with the County School Inspectorates in projection of the educational network and pupils’ enrolment quotas, local curriculum and educational offer, qualifications and specialisations offered etc.

Representatives of the nationally recognised teachers’ unions are involved at all decision-making levels in the education system. The meetings of the administration councils – both at school level and at the County School Inspectorate level – are held in the presence of the representatives of the teachers’ unions. Their role is to observe and express unions’ opinion on the decisions taken (non-voting members) and their comments are registered in the written reports of the meetings. On a number of specific matters concerning teachers’ employment and mobility, papers issued by the head of school or by the General School Inspector have to be endorsed by the representatives of the teachers’ unions in order to produce the envisaged legal effects.

The consultation process at the local (county) level and central level is also accomplished through the social dialogue commissions, organised according to the provisions of the law. At the county level, the social dialogue commission comprises representatives of the prefecture, of the decentralised public services of the ministries (including the County School Inspectorate), of the employers’ confederations and of the trade unions. At the Ministry of National Education level, the social dialogue commission comprises representatives of the ministry and the leaders of nationally recognised teachers’ unions. 

The Law of National Education 1/2011 established the National Authority for Qualifications (NAQ) through the re-organisation of the National Council for Adult Training and the National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education and Partnership with the Social-Economic Environment (ACPART), and defined its responsibilities.