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Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

General administration and management of the education and training system is ensured at the national level by  the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports , a part of the central public administration. In exercising its specific attributions, the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportscooperates at the central level with other Ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government.

The national educational policy is established by  the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports , based on consultations with other involved institutions and ministries. Public Pre-tertiary education is part of the local decentralized public services and is subordinated to the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportsthrough the County School Inspectorates. These inspectorates ensure at local level observance of the legislation and evaluation of the education system and process as well as implementation of the educational policy established by  the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports . Tertiary education is coordinated by  the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports , according to the university autonomy. Universities and other higher education institutions are autonomous and are guaranteed the right to establish and implement their own development policies by the law, within the general provisions of the in-force legislation.

The public Pre-tertiary education network is organised and approved by the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportsin cooperation and with the support of the local public administration, according to the demographic evolution and the training requirements. Establishment of the higher education institutions is possible only through dedicated laws, according to the higher education institutions accreditation and diploma recognition procedures (Law 88/1993 amended through Law 144/1999).

Human resources policy in education is established by  the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports , according to the provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently amended and completed) and the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997) and based on consultations with teachers’ unions. Management of the human resources in Pre-tertiary education is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports and is performed at local level through the County School Inspectorates. The methodology for the teachers’ mobility (recruitment, selection, appointment and permanent or temporary transfer) is established every year through Ministerial Order, within the limits set by the law. Furthermore, the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportscoordinates and supervises through the County School Inspectorates all the activities concerning the mobility of the teachers. Management of the human resources in higher education is the responsibility of the higher education institutions, within the limits established by the law and according to the academic criteria set by  the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports .

The Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports is responsible for the elaboration of the national curriculum for Pre-tertiary education: curriculum frameworks, syllabi and textbooks. Schools, in cooperation with the County School Inspectorates and local community representatives, establish the school based curriculum (local development curriculum for T/VET). Higher education curricula are established according to the university autonomy.

Public tertiary education is financed from the state budget based on financing contracts signed between the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports and the higher education institutions.

The entire material basis of higher education is the property of and administrated by the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports

 

General Administration at National Level

The organisation and functioning of the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports is regulated through decisions of the Government, according to the general provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently amended and completed). The Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports has the responsibility to establish and implement the national educational policy and has initiative and execution rights in financing and human resources policies in education. In exercising its specific attributions, the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports cooperates at the central level with other Ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government.

The decision-making process at the national level is assisted by experts’ bodies established by the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportsand by consultative bodies established by the law: the National Council for Education Reform, the National Council for Attesting Higher Education Titles, Diplomas and Certificates, the National Council for Financing Higher Education, the National Council for Scientific Research in Higher Education, the Libraries National Council, the National Council for Continuing Education and Training, the subject national commissions, and the management structures of the reform projects. In the consultation process the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportsalso involves national teachers’ professional associations and, as social partners, teachers’ unions and pupils’ and students’ associations recognised at national level.

Implementation of the major reform projects and the decentralisation process (See 2.1.) and 2.2.) has led to the establishment through laws or decisions of the Government of a number of institutions or institutional structures external to  the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports , holding specific attributions: the National Centre for Curriculum and Evaluation of Pre-tertiary Education (founded in 2007 by the reorganization of the National Council for Curriculum), the National Service for Assessment and Evaluation, the National Centre for TVET Development, the National Commission for Pre-tertiary Education Evaluation and Accreditation, the National Council for Financing Public Pre-tertiary Education, the National Centre for In-service Training of the Pre-tertiary Education Staff, the National Centre for Recognition and Equivalence of Diplomas, etc. In order to implement at national level the European Union action programmes in the field of education and training, the Socrates National Agency and the National Centre Leonardo da Vinci. Both institutions joined in 2005, and formed the National Agency for Community Programmes in the Field of Education and Training, which presently manages the Community Programmes: Lifelong Learning and Youth in Action.

In November 2005, based on the Government Ordinance no. 75/2005 regarding quality assurance in education, the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance on Pre-tertiary Education (ARACIP) was founded, which took over the patrimony, the rights and obligations, the logistic infrastructure, the stuff and the database of the National Commission for Pre-tertiary Education Evaluation and Accreditation. (CNEAIP).

In establishing, coordinating and implementing the national educational policy, the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports has the following attributions:

  • To coordinate and control the national education system;
  • To organise the public educational network and to propose the enrolment quotas to the Government, based on prognosis studies and consultations with the schools, local public authorities and interested economic agents;
  • To approve and ensure observance of the National Curriculum and of the national evaluation system;
  • To coordinate the scientific research activity in education;
  • To ensure the framework for textbook production and to ensure schools financing for the acquisition of the textbooks, according to the provisions of the law;
  • To establish the general higher education admission criteria;
  • To approve establishment of high schools (lyceums) and post-high schools units;
  • To approve, in the conditions of the law, the organising and functioning regulations of the subordinated units, except for the higher education institutions;
  • To elaborate diagnose and prognosis studies in the domains of restructuring and modernisation of education and to contribute to the improvement of the legislative framework;
  • To ensure the framework for designing, homologation and production of educational means;
  • To ensure the organisational framework in selection and training of gifted pupils;
  • To ensure specialised schooling and adequate psycho-pedagogical support for children and youngsters with physical, sensorial, mental or associated disabilities;
  • To analyse social protection in education and to propose adequate measures to the Government and the local public authorities;
  • To coordinate the activity of the subordinated higher education libraries;
  • To assume the responsibility of initial and in-service teacher training;
  • To coordinate for the subordinated units, according to the provisions of the law, the appointment, transfer, dismissal, retirement and evidence of the teachers, teachers’ assistants and management, guiding and control personnel;
  • To ensure repartition of the training national Fund, based on consultations with the interested players;
  • To assume the responsibility of the national education system evaluation, according to the national standards;
  • To elaborate and implement the medium and long-term education and training reform strategies;
  • To elaborate in cooperation with other ministries the strategy for cooperation in the filed of education and scientific research with other states and international bodies;
  • To cooperate on a protocol-basis with the states where persons of Romanian nationality or origin live, in order to promote and provide education in the mother tongue;
  • To elaborate specific norms for school buildings and endowments;
  • To establish, based on internal norms, the means to recognise and validate the diplomas, certificates and scientific titles issued abroad, according to the international conventions;
  • To establish the structure of the school year for Pre-tertiary education, exams sessions, terms for organising contests and school holidays;
  • To control the observance of the norms for accounting-financial activity, budgetary execution and administration of the public national education system patrimony; to charge taxes, in RON and foreign currencies, to cover for the costs of study papers validation and recognition, according to the provisions of the law.  

General Administration at Regional Level

Pre-tertiary education, including schools of all levels, extra-school activities and auxiliary units, is subordinated to the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportst hrough the County School Inspectorates acting as regional level deconcetrated specialised bodies with the following attributions:

  • To supervise the organisation and functioning of the Pre-tertiary educational network in accordance with the national educational policy;
  • To ensure implementation and observance of the legislation in organizing, management and deployment of the educational process;
  • To ensure quality of the education and observance of the national standards through the school inspection;
  • To establish, based on the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportsendorsement, public schools as: kindergarten - grădiniţa (for children from 3 up to 6 years old), primary (from the 1-St up to the 4-Th grade), gimnaziu (from the 5-Th up to the 8-Th grade) and VET schools;
  • To propose to the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sportsthe pupils’ enrolment quotas for each education level, route, profile and specialisation at the county level – based on prognosis studies and following consultations with schools, local public administration authorities, economic agents and interested social partners;
  • To ensure together with the local public administration authorities schooling of the pupils during compulsory education;
  • To coordinate teachers’ recruitment, according to the provisions of the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997);
  • To organise and guide the in-service teacher training as well as scientific research and other complementary activities in Pre-tertiary education;
  • To coordinate together with the local public administration authorities utilisation, development and preservation of the didactic material basis of the schools;
  • To coordinate schools’ admission and graduation exams as well as the educational competitions;
  • To control the activities and the Pre-tertiary educational services provided by the economic agents, foundations, associations, religious cults and other bodies within the county; to ascertain observance of the legislation and to take the legal measures as required;
  • To coordinate the activity of the libraries in the Pre-tertiary education units subordinated;
  • To coordinate and control the Teaching Staff Centre – resource center for in-service teacher training.

County School Inspectorates design and implement their own budgets and are financed by the state through the Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports budget. The County School Inspectorates have specific attribution in financing certain educational institutions and activities, as established by the law.

Each County School Inspectorate evaluates annually the education system at the county level and, based on this evaluation and the national educational policy, establishes the management plan for the next school year – detailing objectives, activities, resources and responsibilities. The management plan is discussed with the consultative bodies. After being approved by the administration council of the County School Inspectorate, the management plan becomes compulsory for all managerial structures of the education system at the county level.