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Publications 2016

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Publications by year: 20172016 - 2015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011

Here you can consult thematic reports, comparative studies and Facts and Figures since 2011. Please refer to the EU Bookshop to source reports before this date.

You can also find a series of Focus on articles, which explore themes of recent publications.

Published in 2016

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Focus on: Are education systems focusing on the right skills?

Date of publication: 20 December 2016 "Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere."– Albert Einstein

Are education systems focusing on developing the right skills at school and universities? Societies are ageing, workforces are shrinking, productivity is slowing, radicalism is growing, and young people are aspiring to jobs with maximum security. Is Europe losing its dynamism? Its innovative capacity? And if things continue on the same path, what will be the consequences for our way of living and position on the international stage?


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Mobility Scoreboard: Higher Education Background Report

Date of publication: 8 December 2016

The new Eurydice ‘Mobility Scoreboard: Higher Education’ background report includes six indicators in five thematic areas: information and guidance, foreign language preparation, portability of grants and loans, support provided to students with low socio-economic background, recognition of earning outcomes and qualifications. It has been produced to support the European Commission’s Mobility Scoreboard, whose purpose is to provide a framework for monitoring progress made by European countries in promoting, and removing obstacles to, learning mobility.


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Focus on: Are teachers in Europe paid enough?

Date of publication: 11 November 2016

"Without you, without the affectionate hand you extended to the small poor child that I was, without your teaching and example, none of all this would have happened." - Albert Camus to his school teacher after receiving the Nobel Prize

Anybody would agree with American journalist Charles Kuralt that 'Good teachers know how to bring out the best in students'. But do governments and public authorities know how to bring out the best in teachers? What are the factors that motivate young people to enter the teaching profession, support them in doing the best job possible, and encourage them to stay?


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Structural Indicators for Monitoring Education and Training Systems in Europe – 2016 

Date of publication: 7 November 2016

This report contains more than 30 structural indicators that focus on country progress and key policy developments in five areas: early childhood education and care, achievement in basic skills, early leaving from education and training, higher education and graduate employability. It provides background and complementary information to the European Commission's Education and Training Monitor 2016

Information for the year 2015/16 covers 40 European education and training systems.


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National Student Fee and Support Systems in European Higher Education – 2016/17

Date of publication: 25 October 2016

This report on student fee and support systems in Europe provides a comparative overview of which students pay fees, how much they pay, and to what extent they receive financial support during their studies. Individual country sheets outline the main elements of national systems. While attention mostly focuses on first and second cycle full time students, it also shows data for short cycle students for the first time.

Information covers the 28 EU Member States as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey.


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Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe – 2015/16

Date of publication: 5 October 2016

This annual report provides a comparative analysis on teachers' and school heads' statutory salaries and allowances in 2015/16 in 40 European countries or regions. It also looks into how teachers' statutory salaries have changed as compared to 2014/15 and how their purchasing power has developed since 2009. The report includes national data sheets with detailed information on annual statutory and actual salaries, salary progression and available allowances in each country.


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The Structure of the European Education Systems 2016/17: Schematic Diagrams

Date of publication: 29 September 2016

This report provides information on the structure of mainstream education in European countries from pre-primary to tertiary level for the 2016/17 school and academic year. It includes national schematic diagrams, an explanatory guide and maps showing the main organisational models of pre-primary and compulsory education. The information is available for 43 European education systems covering 38 countries participating in the EU's Erasmus+ programme.


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Compulsory Education in Europe – 2016/17

Date of publication: 29 September 2016

This publication focuses on the duration of compulsory education/training in Europe. It highlights the starting and leaving ages and distinguishes the notions of full-time and part-time compulsory education/training. The information is available for 43 European education systems covering 38 countries participating in the EU's Erasmus+ programme.



Focus on: Innovation at school

'Don't limit a child to your own learning, for he was born in another time' - Rabindranath Tagore

There is an often repeated saying that we have schools from the XIX century, teachers from the XX century and pupils from the XXI century. However, schools are not entirely stuck in the past, and innovation is arriving in different ways and at different speeds. Architecture, teaching methods and new technologies are all having an impact on the skills we develop in our children, and key elements of School 2.0 for the XXI century are already with us.



The Organisation of the Academic Year in Europe – 2016/17

Date of publication: 6 September 2016

The academic calendar contains national data on how the academic year is structured (beginning of the academic year, term times, holidays and examination periods). Differences between university and non-university study programmes are also highlighted. The information is available for 37 countries.



The Organisation of School Time in Europe. Primary and General Secondary Education – 2016/17

Date of publication: 6 September 2016

The school calendar contains national data on the length of the school year, the start and the end dates of each school year, the timing and length of school holidays and the number of school days. It covers both primary and general secondary education and key points are illustrated by comparative figures. The information is available for 37 countries.



Focus on: The long and winding road back to school!

Date of publication: 26 July 2016

'In the summer, the days were long, stretching into each other. Out of school, everything was on pause and yet happening at the same time, this collection of weeks when anything was possible.' - Sarah Dessen in Along for the Ride

Everyone has childhood memories attached to the summer.  It is the period of the year with the greatest sense of freedom. The kind of freedom that may push you to the most exciting adventures or leave you to survive the most boring, suffocating, hot days. This Focus on article reflects on the different educational effect that summer holidays can have on children, seeing an opportunity for schools and society to do things differently to the rest of the school year.


Focus on: Does good evidence make good education policy?

Date of publication: 23 June 2016

'Everything that can be counted does not necessarily count; everything that counts cannot necessarily be counted' – Albert Einstein 

In recent decades there has been a strong move towards evidence-based policy making in the public sector. Few education policy-makers today would dare to introduce a reform that is not backed up by data and research evidence. But what is the nature of evidence being used, and can we rely on it to make better policy?  


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Recommended Annual Instruction Time in Full-time Compulsory Education in Europe 2015/16

Date of publication: 9 June 2016

Reading, writing and literature, mathematics, natural sciences and foreign languages are recognised as core subjects in all European countries. But how much time do students spend on those subjects at school, and how much does this instruction time vary across countries? 

This report provides information about the recommended minimum instruction time across core subjects in full-time general compulsory education in 37 European countries participating in the Eurydice network. The reference year is 2015/16.

The publication offers a comparative overview of the differences between primary and compulsory general secondary education, and identifies the main changes since 2010/11. It also includes national diagrams and maps illustrating the data on minimum instruction time by country and by subject. 



Focus on: Educating at home: what can we learn

Date of publication: 29 April 2016

'...we have come to realise that for most men (sic) the right to learn is curtailed by the obligation to attend school' – Ivan Illich.

If you are a young European adult, you have probably spent a great amount of your time in a school, and if you are a European toddler, you will most probably spend even more time in school. According to the European Commission, almost all children from the age of 4 are now involved in some form of early childhood education and care, very close to the ET 2020 target of 95 %. At the other end of the school spectrum, Eurydice reports that many European countries have extended the number of years of compulsory education since the 1980s.


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Focus on: Europe's refugee tipping point: Can higher education respond 

Date of publication: 8 April 2016

Leaders and citizens realise that, without the European Union and its unity, we could not face the problems of terrorism, migrants, and refugees.Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the European Commission.

In recent months, news related to the refugee crisis has painted a doom and gloom picture of European reality: chaos and tragedy at the borders and growing tensions inside EU countries between locals and alienated refugees. Yet, while news on this topic tends to be negative, there are many positive – but less reported – initiatives taking place. Higher education is one sector that does not often make headlines in this context but has considerable potential to transform current reality. So could our higher education systems be doing more?


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Promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education – Overview of education policy developments in Europe following the Paris Declaration of 17 March 2015

Date of publication: 17 March 2016

This leaflet provides a short overview of recent education policy developments in European countries related to the objectives of the Paris Declaration. It also analyses the aspects of education systems covered by these policies as well as the levels of education concerned. 

It covers the 28 EU Member States, which are signatories to the Declaration, as well as other members of the Eurydice Network.  

The Paris Declaration was adopted in March 2015 to promote citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education.



Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe

Date of publication: 22 February 2016

This report provides the most recent information on strategies, curricula and learning outcomes, and also covers themes such as funding schemes and teacher education. 

The analysis focuses on primary education, lower and general upper secondary education as well as school-based initial vocational education and training. Information covers 33 countries participating in the Eurydice network. In addition, national information sheets provide an overview of entrepreneurship education in each country. The reference year is 2014/15.



Focus on: Is money the solution to widening participation in higher education?

Date of publication: 15 February 2016

What students pay to study, and the financial support they receive, has been highlighted by Eurydice as a key aspect of the social dimension of higher education. Whatever the economic and political reality in a country, issues about fees are often highly charged. Altering the balance of fees and financial support is one of the key levers that governments are able to pull in an age when higher education institutions enjoy substantial autonomy. But in which direction should the levers be pulled to help the disadvantaged?



2015 - Eurydice publications

Date of publication: 12 February 2016

Last year, Eurydice published a number of reports on various educational topics ranging from early childhood education and care to higher education. 
An overview of our 2015 publications is now available. With just one click, you can easily get access to all our reports!



National Sheets on Education Budgets in Europe – 2015

Date of publication: 7 January 2016

The report on Education Budgets in Europe for 2015 provides the most recent data on planned education budgets by country. It makes it possible to identify changes in education budgets within a country between 2014 and 2015. National education budgets are presented by type of expenditure and education level.

Information covers 26 EU Member States as well as other countries participating in the Eurydice network.