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Publications 2014

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Publications archive: 2017- 20162015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011


Here you can consult thematic reports, comparative studies and Facts and Figures in 2014. Please refer to the EU Bookshop to source reports before this date.

You can also find a series of Focus on articles, which explore themes of recent publications.

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Education Budgets in Europe 2014

Date of publications: 5 December 2014

Investment in education is a priority area in the Europe 2020 strategy. However, the lack of recent information on public investment in education in Europe makes it difficult to monitor and discuss this topic, to pinpoint the factors explaining changes to educational investments, and to analyse recent reforms undertaken by countries within their budgetary framework. Therefore, Eurydice has produced the National Sheets on Education Budgets in Europe – 2014, which provide the most recent data on planned education expenditure in European countries. National education budgets are presented by type of expenditure and level of education. The publication makes it possible to identify changes in education budgets between 2013 and 2014. Moreover, the national sheets address the reasons for changes in the budgets.

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Tackling Early Leaving from Education and Training in Europe: Strategies, Policies and Measures

Date of publication: 20 November 2014

This joint Eurydice/Cedefop report sheds light on early leaving from education and training – a serious challenge in many EU countries. The report aims to add value to Member States' individual efforts as well as to the European Commission's endeavours in this area by monitoring developments in the design and implementation of strategies, policies and measures to combat early leaving and support student learning.

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Eurydice Policy Brief Early Childhood Education and Care 2014

Date of publication: 17 November 2014

This executive summary, succinctly explains the main contents of the Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe 2014 Edition, a report published by Eurydice jointly with Eurostat in June 2014. It shows that various solutions for the education and care of children under compulsory school age exist across European countries.

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The Structure of the European Education Systems 2014/15: Schematic Diagrams

The Structure of the European Education Systems 2014/15: Schematic Diagrams

Date of publication: 14 November 2014

Diagrams providing an overview of the educational structure for mainstream schooling in Europe.

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Compulsory education in Europe 2014/15

Date of publication: 27 October 2014

A table representing the duration of compulsory education (full-time and part-time) in Europe.

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Focus on: Do children who spend more time in lessons do better?

Date of publication: 17 October 2014

What do Mozart and Messi have in common?

If time is the most valuable thing a man can spend, does the amount of time spent in the classroom have any bearing on academic success? The question is an important one, as policy-makers and those working in ministries of education often set guidelines on recommended taught time. Schoolards, school heads and ultimately teachers make decisions on how much time should be spent teaching different subjects in schools – and often the subjects considered  more "important" end up with more teaching time devoted to them. However, should we really assume that the more we teach a subject in school, the better students will perform?

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National Student Fee and Support Systems in European Higher Education, 2014/15

Date of publication: 17 October 2014

This Eurydice report provides information on the national student fee and support systems (including grants and loans) across European countries. It covers 33 European countries – all EU Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Montenegro and Turkey. The key points section enables readers to gain a good overall understanding of the topic, while the national diagrams and information sheets illustrate the main characteristics of each system.

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Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe, 2013/14

Date of publication: 3 October 2014

A data collection and comparative study targeting teachers' and school heads' salaries.

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Comparative Overview on Instruction Time in Full-time Compulsory Education in Europe - 2013/14

Date of publication: 25 September 2014

This report shows the recommended annual instruction time in full-time compulsory education in public sector schools. The report covers 32 countries of the Eurydice network (reference year 2013-2014). National sheets are included. Diagrams allow the reader to easily access data on instruction time in general education according to country and according to subject.

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 Focus on funding.jpg Focus on: Funding education: who really decides?

Date of publication: 5 September 2014

"To give away money is an easy matter ... and in any man's power. But to decide to whom to give it, and how large and when, for what purpose and how, is neither in every man's power nor an easy matter". –Aristotle

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Focus on: Where would 2 year olds choose to live?

Date of publication: 30 July 2014

"We cannot always build the future for our youth, but we can build our youth for the future."Franklin D. Roosevelt

For several years, research evidence has demonstrated that investment in high quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) brings long-term benefits to individuals and societies that far outweigh the costs of providing these educational opportunities. Yet In Europe, of the 16 million children under three years old, only 5 million attended ECEC services in 2011. Where were the rest? Why are so many not participating in ECEC?

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Financing Schools in Europe: Mechanisms, Methods and Criteria in Public Funding

Date of publication: 30 June 2014

This report provides a framework for understanding the structure of funding systems of primary and general secondary education. It delivers an analysis of authority levels involved and the methods and criteria used for determining the level of resources for financing school education. It covers 27 of the 28 EU Member States as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey. The authority levels involved in the transfers and provision of school funding is inextricably linked to the political and administrative set-up in individual countries themselves. With the help of national diagrams on funding flows, the report explains the different mechanisms, methods and priorities when it comes to funding staff, operational goods and services and capital goods.

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 Repeating School Year.jpg Repeating the school year: does it help or hinder Focus on: children's education and development?

Date of publication: 30 June 2014

"Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results". - Albert Einstein

As this school year finishes, most children will be looking forward to moving on to the next year in the autumn. But a number of children will be held back to repeat the same year. These numbers can be surprisingly high in many countries, with the OECD's 2009 Pisa study showing that the average percentage of 15 year olds who had repeated a year at least once across all EU countries was 7.7 % in primary education and 10.4 % in lower secondary education. So if so many children are repeating years, at a cost that can account for as much as 10 % of the total education budget, there must be strong evidence that this is an effective and beneficial practice. But is there?

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Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe – 2014 Edition

Date of publication: 19 June 2014

This report, published jointly with Eurostat provides 61 indicators as well as a comparative analysis on Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) throughout 32 European countries (37 education systems). The study demonstrates the challenges facing European countries when it comes to providing quality ECEC services for the 32 million children in Europe in the age range to use ECEC services. It covers a number of specific issues important to policy-makers such as access to ECEC, governance, quality assurance, affordability, qualifications and training among staff, leadership, parent involvement, and measures to support disadvantaged children. Information on ECEC policy and central measures was provided by Eurydice National Units, while Eurostat has undertaken the preparation and production of statistical indicators. The reference year for all policy information is 2012/13.

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Recommended Annual Instruction Time in Full-time Compulsory Education in Europe - 2013/14

Date of publication: 17 June 2014

This report shows the recommended annual instruction time in full-time compulsory education in public sector schools. The report covers 32 countries of the Eurydice network (reference year 2013-2014). National sheets are included. Diagrams allow the reader to easily access data on instruction time in general education according to country and according to subject.

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Organisation of school time in Europe. Primary and general secondary education - 2014/15 school year

Date of publication: 10 June 2014


This publication indicates the dates at which the school year begins and the occurrence of holidays holidays for each country of the Network. Regional variations are also indicated where applicable.

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The Organisation of the Academic Year in Higher Education, 2014/15

Date of publication: 10 June 2014


This annually updated publication shows how the academic year is structured (beginning of the year, term times, holidays and examination periods) for each country in the Network. Where times may vary depending on types of (university or non-university) study programme, this is also indicated.

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 link=Publications%3AFocus%20on%3A10%20reasons%20to%20know%20about%20school%20holidays%20in%20Europe Focus on: 10 reasons to know about school holidays in Europe

Date of publication: 28 May 2014

Every year, Eurydice publishes a special report on school calendars that shows how the school years in Europe are organised. The publication covers all European countries, showing when different school holidays start and end. Many people, especially parents, seem to find the publication very useful judging by the number of comments we receive. We’d like to share some of these comments, ranging from the enlightening to the bizarre. Perhaps you will also find a reason why you should know about school holidays in Europe!

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Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Access, Retention and Employability

Date of publication: 22 May 2014

The development of quality mass higher education systems is high on the policy agendas atth national and European levels. An increasing number of European citizens require high level knowledge, skills and competences to expand the knowledge-base and foster innovation and progress. Thus, higher education systems in Europe should be designed to respond and adapt to the needs of our increasingly knowledge-based economy and societies. To support evidence-based policy making, this Eurydice report sheds light on current national and institutional policies and practices aimed at increasing and widening access, reducing student dropout, and improving the employability of higher education graduates in Europe. The report covers 36 European countries and education systems and consolidates information from three different sources: Eurydice national units, national quality assurance agencies and site visits to higher education institutions.

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 Education make us happy.jpg Can education make us happy?

Date of publication: 30 April 2014

"Happiness" is a condition for successful education and the potential outcome of it. 'The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence. But we find that this education of sympathy is not only systematically ignored in schools, but it is severely repressed. ' – Rabindranath Tagore on education

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 Focus on Targets really matters.jpg Education in Europe 2020: do targets really matter?

Date of publication: 28 February 2014

The EU2020 strategy enables strings to be pulled at th European and national level in a more concerted way.

"Symbols can be so beautiful, sometimes." Kurt Vonnegut

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 Focus on Scoreboard.jpg Focus on: How can a scoreboard improve student mobility?

Date of publication: 3 February 2014

Data explosion provides new opportunities and challenges for policy making

"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind ..."– William Thompson (Lord Kelvin), 1824–1907.

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Towards a Mobility Scoreboard: Conditions for Learning Abroad in Europe

Date of publication: 9 January 2014

This feasibility report contains a set of draft proposals for 'scoreboard indicators' focusing on conditions supporting learner mobility in higher education. Following up on a 2011 Council Recommendation through which Member States committed to promoting and removing obstacles to learner mobility, it aims to set a framework for monitoring progress. The report covers topics ranging from information and guidance to language preparation, portability of financial support, recognition and support to disadvantaged learners. The indicators in these areas allow national policy and practice to be clearly differentiated, and provide benchmarks for progress. The report covers 33 countries (all 28 EU Member States, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and has the reference year 2011/12. Further editions of the report are expected to be produced on a biennial basis.

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