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Publications

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Here you can consult thematic reports, comparative studies and Facts and Figures since 2011. Please refer to the EU Bookshop to source reports before this date.

You can also find a series of Focus on articles, which explore themes of recent publications.

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The Organisation of the Academic Year in Higher Education, 2015/16

Date of publication:  1 September 2015

The Academic Calendar contains national data on how the academic year is structured (beginning of the year, term times, holidays and examination periods). Differences between university and non-university study programmes are also highlighted. The information is available for 37 countries.

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Organisation of school time in Europe. Primary and general secondary education: 2015/16 school year

Date of publication: 1 September 2015

The School Calendar contains national data on the length of the school year, the start and the end dates of each school year, and the timing and length of school holidays. It covers both primary and secondary education. The information is available for 36 countries.

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The Teaching Profession in Europe: Practices, Perceptions, and Policies

Date of publication: 25 June 2015

This Eurydice report analyses the relation between the policies that regulate the teaching profession in Europe for lower secondary education teachers, and the attitudes, practices, and perceptions of teachers. The analysis covers aspects such as initial teacher education, continuing professional development, transnational mobility, as well as teacher demographics, working conditions, and the attractiveness of the profession. It combines qualitative and quantitative data from Eurydice, Eurostat/UOE, and TALIS 2013.

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Focus on: Eurydice has launched its new improved, integrated and interactive website!

Date of publication: 16 June 2015

"Clarity affords focus" – Thomas Leonard

The mission of the Eurydice network is to provide European-level analyses and information to those responsible for education systems and policies in Europe, and assist in the decision and policy making. Eurydice delivers detailed descriptions and overviews of national education systems, comparative thematic reports devoted to specific topics of community interest, and factual reports related to education. The network consists of 41 national units based in 37 countries with a coordinating unit located at the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) in Brussels, Belgium.

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Eurydice Brief: Early Leaving from Education and Training

Date of publication: 11 June 2015

This Eurydice Brief on Early Leaving from Education and Training (ELET) shows that collectively, Member States are getting closer to the EU headline target: by 2020, the share of early leavers from education and training (aged 18-24) should be less than 10 %. Nevertheless, ELET remains still a serious challenge in many EU countries.

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The European Higher Education Area in 2015: Bologna Process Implementation Report

Date of publication: 12 May 2015

This report provides a snapshot of the state of implementation of the Bologna Process from various perspectives using data collected in the first half of 2014. It provides both qualitative information and statistical data, and covers all main aspects of higher education reforms aiming at a well-functioning European Higher Education Area.

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Recommended Annual Instruction Time in Full-time Compulsory Education in Europe 2014/15

Date of publication: 8 May 2015

This publication provides information on instruction time in various forms: national data sheets, comparative indicators and country specific notes. The data is presented in diagrams, detailing instruction time by country and instruction time by subject. An accompanying comparative analysis covers various instruction time indicators.

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Focus on: Are adults interested in learning?

Date of publication: 27 April 2015

In the 1980s, the film Educating Rita struck a chord with many who saw adult education as a major cultural divide. Focusing on a young, working class hairdresser's aspiration to "improve herself" through education, the film revealed in a realistic and often humorous way that academic success for people from such backgrounds doesn't come easily.

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Eurydice Brief: Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Access, Retention and Employability

Date of publication: 27 March 2015

From analysis of national policies and institutional practice across Europe, this Eurydice Brief shows that:

Few countries have developed policy initiatives, strategies, targets and measures for improving access for people from groups currently under-represented in higher education.

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Focus on: Education: the end of the alpha-male?

Date of publication: 27 February 2015

What is the most striking transformation that has taken place in European education in the last half century? The information and communications revolution and the changes brought to teaching and learning methods are strong contenders, while internationalisation and student mobility in education have also expanded education's horizons.

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Adult Education and Training in Europe: Widening Access to Learning Opportunities

Date of publication: 10 February 2015

Through a comprehensive overview of policies and data related to the renewed European agenda for adult learning, this Eurydice report aims to support the exchange of policy and practice between countries. The report concentrates on measures to ensure that the most vulnerable groups of adult learners, in particular those with low basic skills or insufficient qualifications, have appropriate access to lifelong learning opportunities.

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 OneWay.jpg Focus on: Turning tides in school evaluation

Date of publication: 29 January 2015

15 years ago, the phrase 'school evaluation' would probably have triggered a rather one directional image of teachers assessing individual students. The reputation and 'fame' of schools depended on whether pupils generally performed well, and while schools or teachers, may have been 'inspected' there was rarely a consideration of the range of issues that affect the school environment. Today, reality has progressed and the picture looks quite different.

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Assuring Quality in Education: Policies and Approaches to School Evaluation in Europe

Date of publication: 13 January 2015

This report analyses the structures and organisation of school evaluation in primary and compulsory secondary level. It covers all EU Member States, as well as Iceland, Norway, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Turkey. Schools form the basic building blocks of education and training systems, and school evaluation is an important way to monitor and improve their quality, as well as to enhance the quality of education at large.

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Education Budgets in Europe 2014

Date of publications: 5 December 2014

Investment in education is a priority area in the Europe 2020 strategy. However, the lack of recent information on public investment in education in Europe makes it difficult to monitor and discuss this topic, to pinpoint the factors explaining changes to educational investments, and to analyse recent reforms undertaken by countries within their budgetary framework. Therefore, Eurydice has produced the National Sheets on Education Budgets in Europe – 2014, which provide the most recent data on planned education expenditure in European countries. National education budgets are presented by type of expenditure and level of education. The publication makes it possible to identify changes in education budgets between 2013 and 2014. Moreover, the national sheets address the reasons for changes in the budgets.

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Tackling Early Leaving from Education and Training in Europe: Strategies, Policies and Measures

Date of publication: 20 November 2014

This joint Eurydice/Cedefop report sheds light on early leaving from education and training – a serious challenge in many EU countries. The report aims to add value to Member States' individual efforts as well as to the European Commission's endeavours in this area by monitoring developments in the design and implementation of strategies, policies and measures to combat early leaving and support student learning.

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Eurydice Policy Brief Early Childhood Education and Care 2014

Date of publication: 17 November 2014

This executive summary, succinctly explains the main contents of the Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe 2014 Edition, a report published by Eurydice jointly with Eurostat in June 2014. It shows that various solutions for the education and care of children under compulsory school age exist across European countries.

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The Structure of the European Education Systems 2014/15: Schematic Diagrams

The Structure of the European Education Systems 2014/15: Schematic Diagrams

Date of publication: 14 November 2014

Diagrams providing an overview of the educational structure for mainstream schooling in Europe.

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Compulsory education in Europe 2014/15

Date of publication: 27 October 2014

A table representing the duration of compulsory education (full-time and part-time) in Europe.

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Focus on: Do children who spend more time in lessons do better?

Date of publication: 17 October 2014

What do Mozart and Messi have in common?

If time is the most valuable thing a man can spend, does the amount of time spent in the classroom have any bearing on academic success? The question is an important one, as policy-makers and those working in ministries of education often set guidelines on recommended taught time. Schoolards, school heads and ultimately teachers make decisions on how much time should be spent teaching different subjects in schools – and often the subjects considered  more "important" end up with more teaching time devoted to them. However, should we really assume that the more we teach a subject in school, the better students will perform?

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National Student Fee and Support Systems in European Higher Education, 2014/15

Date of publication: 17 October 2014

This Eurydice report provides information on the national student fee and support systems (including grants and loans) across European countries. It covers 33 European countries – all EU Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Montenegro and Turkey. The key points section enables readers to gain a good overall understanding of the topic, while the national diagrams and information sheets illustrate the main characteristics of each system.

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Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe, 2013/14

Date of publication: 3 October 2014

A data collection and comparative study targeting teachers' and school heads' salaries.

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Comparative Overview on Instruction Time in Full-time Compulsory Education in Europe - 2013/14

Date of publication: 25 September 2014

This report shows the recommended annual instruction time in full-time compulsory education in public sector schools. The report covers 32 countries of the Eurydice network (reference year 2013-2014). National sheets are included. Diagrams allow the reader to easily access data on instruction time in general education according to country and according to subject.

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 Focus on funding.jpg Focus on: Funding education: who really decides?

Date of publication: 5 September 2014

"To give away money is an easy matter ... and in any man's power. But to decide to whom to give it, and how large and when, for what purpose and how, is neither in every man's power nor an easy matter". –Aristotle

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Focus on: Where would 2 year olds choose to live?

Date of publication: 30 July 2014

"We cannot always build the future for our youth, but we can build our youth for the future."Franklin D. Roosevelt

For several years, research evidence has demonstrated that investment in high quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) brings long-term benefits to individuals and societies that far outweigh the costs of providing these educational opportunities. Yet In Europe, of the 16 million children under three years old, only 5 million attended ECEC services in 2011. Where were the rest? Why are so many not participating in ECEC?

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Financing Schools in Europe: Mechanisms, Methods and Criteria in Public Funding

Date of publication: 30 June 2014

This report provides a framework for understanding the structure of funding systems of primary and general secondary education. It delivers an analysis of authority levels involved and the methods and criteria used for determining the level of resources for financing school education. It covers 27 of the 28 EU Member States as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey. The authority levels involved in the transfers and provision of school funding is inextricably linked to the political and administrative set-up in individual countries themselves. With the help of national diagrams on funding flows, the report explains the different mechanisms, methods and priorities when it comes to funding staff, operational goods and services and capital goods.

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 Repeating School Year.jpg Repeating the school year: does it help or hinder Focus on: children's education and development?

Date of publication: 30 June 2014

"Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results". - Albert Einstein

As this school year finishes, most children will be looking forward to moving on to the next year in the autumn. But a number of children will be held back to repeat the same year. These numbers can be surprisingly high in many countries, with the OECD's 2009 Pisa study showing that the average percentage of 15 year olds who had repeated a year at least once across all EU countries was 7.7 % in primary education and 10.4 % in lower secondary education. So if so many children are repeating years, at a cost that can account for as much as 10 % of the total education budget, there must be strong evidence that this is an effective and beneficial practice. But is there?

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Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe – 2014 Edition

Date of publication: 19 June 2014

This report, published jointly with Eurostat provides 61 indicators as well as a comparative analysis on Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) throughout 32 European countries (37 education systems). The study demonstrates the challenges facing European countries when it comes to providing quality ECEC services for the 32 million children in Europe in the age range to use ECEC services. It covers a number of specific issues important to policy-makers such as access to ECEC, governance, quality assurance, affordability, qualifications and training among staff, leadership, parent involvement, and measures to support disadvantaged children. Information on ECEC policy and central measures was provided by Eurydice National Units, while Eurostat has undertaken the preparation and production of statistical indicators. The reference year for all policy information is 2012/13.

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Recommended Annual Instruction Time in Full-time Compulsory Education in Europe - 2013/14

Date of publication: 17 June 2014

This report shows the recommended annual instruction time in full-time compulsory education in public sector schools. The report covers 32 countries of the Eurydice network (reference year 2013-2014). National sheets are included. Diagrams allow the reader to easily access data on instruction time in general education according to country and according to subject.

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Organisation of school time in Europe. Primary and general secondary education - 2014/15 school year

Date of publication: 10 June 2014


This publication indicates the dates at which the school year begins and the occurrence of holidays holidays for each country of the Network. Regional variations are also indicated where applicable.

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The Organisation of the Academic Year in Higher Education, 2014/15

Date of publication: 10 June 2014


This annually updated publication shows how the academic year is structured (beginning of the year, term times, holidays and examination periods) for each country in the Network. Where times may vary depending on types of (university or non-university) study programme, this is also indicated.

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 link=Publications%3AFocus%20on%3A10%20reasons%20to%20know%20about%20school%20holidays%20in%20Europe Focus on: 10 reasons to know about school holidays in Europe

Date of publication: 28 May 2014

Every year, Eurydice publishes a special report on school calendars that shows how the school years in Europe are organised. The publication covers all European countries, showing when different school holidays start and end. Many people, especially parents, seem to find the publication very useful judging by the number of comments we receive. We’d like to share some of these comments, ranging from the enlightening to the bizarre. Perhaps you will also find a reason why you should know about school holidays in Europe!

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Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Access, Retention and Employability

Date of publication: 22 May 2014

The development of quality mass higher education systems is high on the policy agendas atth national and European levels. An increasing number of European citizens require high level knowledge, skills and competences to expand the knowledge-base and foster innovation and progress. Thus, higher education systems in Europe should be designed to respond and adapt to the needs of our increasingly knowledge-based economy and societies. To support evidence-based policy making, this Eurydice report sheds light on current national and institutional policies and practices aimed at increasing and widening access, reducing student dropout, and improving the employability of higher education graduates in Europe. The report covers 36 European countries and education systems and consolidates information from three different sources: Eurydice national units, national quality assurance agencies and site visits to higher education institutions.

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 Education make us happy.jpg Can education make us happy?

Date of publication: 30 April 2014

"Happiness" is a condition for successful education and the potential outcome of it. 'The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence. But we find that this education of sympathy is not only systematically ignored in schools, but it is severely repressed. ' – Rabindranath Tagore on education

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 Focus on Targets really matters.jpg Education in Europe 2020: do targets really matter?

Date of publication: 28 February 2014

The EU2020 strategy enables strings to be pulled at th European and national level in a more concerted way.

"Symbols can be so beautiful, sometimes." Kurt Vonnegut

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 Focus on Scoreboard.jpg Focus on: How can a scoreboard improve student mobility?

Date of publication: 3 February 2014

Data explosion provides new opportunities and challenges for policy making

"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind ..."– William Thompson (Lord Kelvin), 1824–1907.

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Towards a Mobility Scoreboard: Conditions for Learning Abroad in Europe

Date of publication: 9 January 2014

This feasibility report contains a set of draft proposals for 'scoreboard indicators' focusing on conditions supporting learner mobility in higher education. Following up on a 2011 Council Recommendation through which Member States committed to promoting and removing obstacles to learner mobility, it aims to set a framework for monitoring progress. The report covers topics ranging from information and guidance to language preparation, portability of financial support, recognition and support to disadvantaged learners. The indicators in these areas allow national policy and practice to be clearly differentiated, and provide benchmarks for progress. The report covers 33 countries (all 28 EU Member States, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and has the reference year 2011/12. Further editions of the report are expected to be produced on a biennial basis.

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 link=Publications%3AFocus%20on%3A%20A%20great%20invention%20for%20European%20education Focus on: A great invention for European education

Date of publication: 20 December 2013

Exploring European education systems can be as easy as riding a bicycle We have to continually be jumping off cliffs and developing our wings on the way down.''Kurt Vonnegut

Great inventions respond to simple needs. Wanting to move faster than on foot surely led to the first ever bicycle sketch, often attributed to Caprotti in 1493. Now the speed of technological innovation is increasing, so fast it seems that our cars will soon drive themselves. Science is finding technological fixes to our problems before most of us realise there was a problem in the first place. Just have a look at the world of education and new teaching tools: virtual classrooms and smartards are well on their way to replacing physical space and chalk. But how are our systems adapting to this brave new world, and by the way, why doesn't somebody invent a smart tool where we could find out what is really going on?

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Education and Training in Europe 2020. Responses from the EU Member States

Date of publication: 12 December 2013

This report presents a focused comparative analysis of national responses to the Europe 2020 priorities in the field of education and training. It concentrates on recent and forthcoming national reforms across several thematic areas that have a direct relevance to the Europe 2020 strategy: early school leaving, higher education, youth employment and vocational education and training and lifelong learning.

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 Fees for free.jpg Focus on: Fees for free? The many guises of higher education tuition fees in Europe

Date of publication: 12 December 2013

When fees appear free, are they 'priceless'?

Comparing tuition fees - the fee charged to higher education students for educational instruction - seems straightforward. It should be as simple as crunching a few numbers or better yet, locating dots on a chart. Every year, country comparable data on tuition fees are issued by international information providers.

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 link=Publications%3AFocus%20on%3A%20The%20perfect%20life%20of%20teachers Focus on: The perfect life of teachers

Date of publication: 22 November 2013

Stereotypes and reality combined can make teachers' lives a little less than perfect

Those who can, do. Those who can’t, teach – George Bernard Shaw

Being a teacher is easy, isn't it? After all, teachers enjoy generous holidays, few contact hours at school, flexible working conditions, an enviable work/life balance and they get additional benefits, incentives and rewards. On top of that, teachers’ salaries are quite good compared to other professions. At least, that's a common stereotype held by people who are not teachers. But if a teacher’s life were so perfect, why are many European countries facing enormous teacher shortages? And why are so few higher education students enrolling in teacher education programmes?

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Structure of European education systems 2013/14

Date of publication: 4 October 2013

Diagrams providing an overview of the educational structure for mainstream schooling in Europe.

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Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe, 2012/13

Date of publication: 4 October 2013

This annual Eurydice report contains national descriptions and a comparative overview on teachers and school heads' salaries in Europe. The report covers full-time, fully qualified teachers and school heads at pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education levels.

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Staff Mobility in Higher Education. National Policies and Programmes

Date of publication: 4 October 2013

Promoting staff mobility has become an issue of increasing importance in European higher education policy. Mobility and internationalisation are key aspects of the Bologna process, and staff mobility is integral to the overall objectives.


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National student fee and support systems 2013/14

Date of publication: 4 October 2013

This new Eurydice report provides a detailed overview of the national public fee and support systems in place across European countries. The report contains key points which enable readers to have a good overall understanding of the topic while the national diagrams aim to show the main characteristics of each system.

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 New Erasmus.jpg Focus on: The new Erasmus+ programme will boost higher education staff mobility from 2014. But what is staff mobility priority?

Date of publication: 4 October 2013

"Educational exchange can turn nations into people, contributing as no other form of communication can to the humanizing of international relations". Senator William Fulbright

As the debate on internationalisation of higher education grows stronger, so does the interest in mobility not only of students, but also of staff. This is likely to intensify in the coming months, as the European Commission's new Erasmus+ programme, starting in 2014, promises more opportunities and funding for higher education and teaching staff to study, train and work in another country. Indeed, higher education staff will account for a significant percentage of the 1 million beneficiaries of a mobility period funded by the programme between 2014 and 2020.

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 No-future.jpg Focus on: Revealing misconceptions: Young people's new approach to politics

Date of publication: 26 July 2013

Young people's disengagement from political participation has long been a cause for concern. Little interest in and knowledge of political processes, low levels of trust in politicians and growing cynicism towards democratic institutions are often seen as indicators of young people's political apathy. Yet, as a new report prepared by Eurydice researchers shows, it is misleading to think that young people are not interested in politics. In fact, young people generally engage and communicate on political issues even more actively than older adults. They just use different channels.

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 Focus on Education budgets.jpg Focus on: Education budgets at a time of crisis: how much can make a difference?

Date of publication: 12 July 2013

"Europe needs well-educated highly skilled staff toost economic growth" echoes a familiar mantra from the European Commission. But how much investment in education is actually needed for an economy to thrive? And how much of a priority should educational spending be at a time of crisis? Although the prevailing orthodoxy is that educational investment is the best catalyst for economic growth, there are dissenting voices. Indeed some very prominent thinkers consider that education will never solve underlying structural problems in society, and spending on education could create new problems. So what are the key points of this debate, and how have countries actually reacted to the economic crisis?

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Organisation of the academic year in higher education

Date of publication: 17 June 2013

The organisation of the academic year in higher education - 2013/14:This annually updated publication shows how the academic year is structured (beginning of the year, term times, holidays and examination periods) for each country in the Network. Where times may vary depending on types of (university or non-university) study programme, this is also indicated.

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Organisation of school time in Europe

Date of publication: 17 June 2013

This publication indicates the dates at which the school year begins and the occurrence of holidays holidays for each country of the Network. Regional variations are also indicated where applicable.

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Government Education Expenditure in the European Union during the Economic Crisis (2008-2011)

Date of publication: 12 June 2013

Investment in education and training is essential for sustained economic growth and competitiveness in Europe. Acquiring the right skills is key to increase employment and productivity. Europe needs well-educated and highly-skilled staff in order to drive innovation and R&D. A forward-looking and pro-active management of skills supply can help shape the future labour market and support Europe's Strategy on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth ('Europe 2020').

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Focus on: What do politicians mean by the "Social Dimension" of Higher Education in Europe?

Date of publication: 3 June 2013

Eurydice has given social dimension considerable attention in recent higher education publications. Its 2011 publication, Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Funding and the social dimension, examines how the concept of the “social dimension” has been developed and what it entails. According to the report, “social dimension” encompasses at least two aspects: existing national policies aiming to widen participation rates and to improve completion rates, and the impact of student fees and support.

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Recognition of Prior Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Higher Education

Date of publication: 26 April 2013

Recognition of prior non-formal and informal learning as an alternative route to enter higher education, progression in higher education based on the recognition of prior nonformal and informal learning, consolidated indicator on the recognition of prior non-formal and informal learning, legislative frameworks and the recognition of prior non-formal and informal learning.

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Focus on: Recognition of students' informal learning gains ground as a response to societal challenges

Date of publication: 26 April 2013

What matters more in today's labour market: having a qualification or having the knowledge, skills and competences to work? The answer isn't easy: most people probably think that relevant knowledge, skills and competences should matter more, but that very often it's qualifications that count.

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Key Data on Teachers and School Leaders in Europe. 2013 Edition

Date of publication: 24 April 2013

Key Data on Teachers and School Leaders contains 62 indicators on teachers and school leaders from pre-primary to upper secondary education in 32 countries (EU Member States, Croatia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Turkey). Six topics are covered: Initial teacher education and support for beginning teachers; recruitment, employers and contracts; continuing professional development and mobility; working conditions and pay, as well as levels of autonomy and responsibilities of teachers and school leaders. The report combines statistical data and qualitative information derived from primary data supplied by the Eurydice Network, Eurostat data and evidence derived from the international surveys TALIS 2008, PISA 2009 and TIMSS 2011.

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 Pisa tower.jpg Focus on: Is PISA too slanted?

Date of publication: 31 March 2014

PISA has become monumental in the world of education. But are its foundations solid?

"Have no fear of perfection - you'll never reach it" Salvador Dali

It took 199 years to build the Tower of Pisa. Only 5 years after construction had started, the tower began to sink. It had been built on too weak a foundation, set in unstable soil. Although beautifully planned and designed, the project was flawed from the beginning. Yet, just because of its flaw and tilt, the tower of Pisa has become one of the best-known monuments worldwide, and teaches us at least two important lessons: foundations matter, and perfection does not equal attraction.

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Physical Education and Sport at School in Europe

Date of publication: 25 March 2013

Physical Education and Sport at School in Europe maps the state of play of physical education and sport activities at school in 30 European countries. The report covers primary and lower secondary education and provides an insight into the following topics: national strategies and large-scale initiatives where they exist, the status of physical education in national curricula and steering documents, recommended annual taught time, pupil assessment, teacher education, extracurricular activities and planned national reforms. The report is the result of an in depth analysis of primary data provided by Eurydice national units and can be regarded as the first attempt by the European Commission to identify key concerns and strengths regarding physical education at school across European countries.

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Funding of Education in Europe 2000-2012: The Impact of the Economic Crisis

Date of publication: 21 March 2013

This report looks at the trends in education spending over the period 2000-2012 and examines the impact that the financial and economic crisis has had on education budgets across Europe over the last few years (2010-2012). The analysis covers the developments in education funding from pre-primary to tertiary level and provides an overview of the main trends in the adult learning sector in 31 European countries. The full report includes information on the economic context, public expenditure, national budget developments in education, funding of human resources, educational infrastructure, support systems and financial support for students.

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Recommended annual taught time in full-time compulsory education in Europe 2012/13

Date of publication: 28 February 2013

The Eurydice data collection on taught time targets recommended compulsory curriculum by grades/stages for full-time compulsory education. The taught time presented in the national figures corresponds to the most common general education programme in the country concerned. It includes the time spent by a student in receiving instruction on all the subjects integrated in the compulsory core or compulsory flexible curriculum in the school premises or in out-of school activities which are formal part of the programme.

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Compulsory Education in Europe 2013/14

Date of publication: 27 February 2013

A table representing the duration of compulsory education (full-time and part-time) in Europe.

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Compulsory education in Europe, 2012/13

Date of publication: 22 December 2012

A table representing the duration of compulsory education (full-time and part-time) in Europe.

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The Structure of the European Education Systems 2012/13. Schematic Diagrams

Date of publication: 6 December 2012

These diagrams represent the structure of mainstream education from pre-primary to tertiary level for the 2012/13 academic year. Thirty-nine education systems are included covering all 34 countries of the Eurydice Network: the 27 EU Member States, the EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) as well as the candidate countries (Croatia, Serbia and Turkey).

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Developing Key Competences at School in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy

Date of publication: 19 November 2012

This report reviews national policies for the development of key competences at school in Europe. It acknowledges the progress made so far in implementing the key competences approach and discusses several policy challenges that are directly linked to the contribution of education and training to meeting changing skills demands: tackling low achievement in reading, mathematics and science; increasing the number of mathematics science and technology graduates, and further support for the acquisition of transversal competences such as IT skills, entrepreneurship and civics.
The report covers 31 European countries (EU Member States, Croatia, Iceland, Norway, and Turkey) and takes the reference year 2011/12. Information covers compulsory and secondary general education.

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Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe, 2011/12

Date of publication: 5 October 2012

This annual Eurydice report contains national descriptions and a comparative overview on teachers and school heads' salaries in Europe. The report covers full-time, fully qualified teachers and school heads at pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education levels.

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Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe 2012

Date of publication: 20 September 2012

Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe 2012 contains 61 indicators and qualitative information describing the context and organisation of foreign language teaching, student participation levels as well as the initial and continuing education of foreign language teachers. In addition to giving a snapshot of the situation today, the report also presents several time series which are helpful in identifying trends in language teaching over recent years and past decades.
Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe 2012 is a joint Eurydice/Eurostat publication, produced in close cooperation with the European Commission. The report is based on four main data sources: Eurydice, Eurostat, the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC), and the OECD's PISA 2009 international survey. Eurydice data covers 32 countries (27 Member States, Croatia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey) and takes the reference year 2010/11.

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National Student Fee and Support Systems, 2011/12

Date of publication: 10 September 2012

This Eurydice report provides information on the national student fee and support systems (including grants and loans) across European countries. It covers 30 European countries – all EU Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Croatia and Turkey. The key points section enables readers to gain a good overall understanding of the topic, while the national diagrams and information sheets illustrate the main characteristics of each system.

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Organisation of school time in Europe. Primary and general secondary education - 2012/13 school year

Date of publication: 29 June 2012

This publication indicates the dates at which the school year begins and the occurrence of holidays holidays for each country of the Network. Regional variations are also indicated where applicable.

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The Organisation of the Academic Year in Europe, 2012/13

Date of publication: 29 June 2012

This annually updated publication shows how the academic year is structured (beginning of the year, term times, holidays and examination periods) for each country in the Network. Where times may vary depending on types of (university or non-university) study programme, this is also indicated.

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Citizenship Education in Europe

Date of publication: 31 May 2012

Citizenship education in Europe shows that all European countries now have introduced central regulations to promote student participation in school governance. Encouraging citizens, particularly young people, to actively engage in social and political life has recently become a growing political priorityth at national and European level. Because education is viewed as a principal means to promote active citizenship, the report aims to capture how policies and measures relating to citizenship education have evolved over recent years in European countries. To this end, the report provides an overview of the state of play on five main topics: 1) Curriculum aims and organisation; 2) student and parent participation in schools; 3) school culture and student participation in society; 4) assessment and evaluation; 5) and support for teachers and school heads.

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Recommended annual taught time in full-time compulsory education in Europe, 2011/12

Date of publication: 17 May 2012

The Eurydice data collection on taught time targets recommended compulsory curriculum by grades/stages for full-time compulsory education. The taught time presented in the national figures corresponds to the most common general education programme in the country concerned.

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The European Higher Education Area in 2012: Bologna Process Implementation Report

Date of publication: 25 April 2012

The report shows to what extent the higher education landscape in 2012 has been transformed by thelogna Process and describes the state of implementation of the process from various perspectives using data collected in 2011. It illustrates that all countries have made significant changes that have enabled the European Higher Education Area to emerge, and which have laid the ground for higher education that is serving an increasing range of societal demands.

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Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe

Date of publication: 27 March 2012

The report consists ofth a comparative overview and national descriptions. The short comparative overview, covering EU Member States, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey, shows that the great majority of European countries address entrepreneurship education through national strategies or initiatives. At primary education level, two thirds of European countries explicitly acknowledge entrepreneurship in central steering documents while in secondary education virtually all countries integrate entrepreneurship into the curriculum, either as part of the general objectives of the overall curriculum, or within subject curricula or through a combination of these approaches. Thus the importance of entrepreneurship education is widely recognised. Moreover, many European countries define specific learning outcomes for entrepreneurship education covering entrepreneurial attitudes, knowledge and skills. Finally, the report also presents those countries where concrete guidelines and teaching materials give support to teachers, as well as a picture of current initiatives and ongoing reforms.

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Key Data on Education in Europe 2012

Date of publication: 10 February 2012

Key Data on Education in Europe 2012 is a Eurydice flagship publication tracing the main developments of European education systems over the last decade. The report combines statistical data with qualitative information to describe the organisation, management and functioning of 37 European education systems from pre-primary to higher education. More specifically, the 95 indicators included in the report address the following topics: Demographic Context, Educational Structures, Participation, Resources, Teachers and Management staff, Educational Processes and Qualification Levels andTransition to Employment.

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The Structure of the European Education Systems 2011/12. Schematic Diagrams

Date of publication: 12 December 2011

These diagrams give an overview of the educational structure for mainstream schooling in each country from pre-primary level up to tertiary education.

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Science Education in Europe: National Policies, Practices and Research

Date of publication: 16 November 2011

The study examines the organisation of science teaching in Europe and provides an overview of existing policies and strategies that aim at improving and fostering science teaching and learning today. It looks at support measures available to teachers and schools forosting students' motivation and interest in science. The study also contains a literature review on science education, main findings from the international surveys PISA and TIMSS as well as results from a Eurydice pilot survey (SITEP) on the content of initial teacher education programmes. It covers 31 countries (all EU Member States, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey) and takes the reference year 2010/11.

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Mathematics Education in Europe: Common Challenges and National Policies

Date of publication: 16 November 2011

Competence in mathematics is integral to a wide range of disciplines, professions and areas of life. This Eurydice report reveals crucial elements of the policies and practices that shape mathematics instruction in European education systems, focusing on reforms of mathematics curricula, teaching and assessment methods, as well as teacher education. The report also explores how countries tackle low achievement and increase students’ motivation to learn mathematics. It is based on an extensive literature review on mathematics education, main findings from the international surveys PISA and TIMSS and includes the results of a Eurydice pilot survey (SITEP) on the content of initial teacher education programmes. It covers 31 countries (all EU Member States, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey) and takes the reference year 2010/11.

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 131EN.jpg Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Funding and the Social Dimension 2011

Date of publication: 16 September 2011

There is an urgent need to address the social dimension of higher education more forcefully and coherently, particularly in view of the economic downturn across Europe. This is the conclusion of the new Eurydice report, which looks at national policies on access to higher education, funding and student support.

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Teaching Reading in Europe: Contexts, Policies and Practices

Date of publication: 11 July 2011

For the first time, a pan-European study offers a comprehensive picture of reading literacy and identifies some of the key factors impacting on the acquisition of reading skills for 3-15 year olds. It addresses four key topics: teaching approaches, tackling reading difficulties, teacher education and the promotion of reading outside school. It investigates each key topic in the light of the results of academic research, the latest results of international surveys and an in-depth review of national policies, programmes and best practices.

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Key Data on Learning and Innovation through ICT at school in Europe

Date of publication: 23 June 2011

Building on the previous Eurydice publications on information and communication technologies in schools in Europe, this report focuses on the evolution of ICT use in education and the changes it has brought about in national policies and practices concerning teaching methods, contents and evaluation processes. It examines the EU key competences as well as the promotion of transversal skills and the role of ICT in this process. It also sheds light on the strategies used in countries to train and support teachers in the use of ICT.

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The Organisation of the Academic Year in Europe, 2011/12

Date of publication: 17 June 2011

This annually updated publication shows how the academic year is structured (beginning of the year, term times, holidays and examination periods) for each country in the Network. Where times may vary depending on types of (university or non-university) study programme, this is also indicated.

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Organisation of School Time in Europe. Primary and general secondary Education – 2011/12 school year

Date of publication: 14 June 2011

This publication indicates the dates at which the school year begins and the occurrence of holidays holidays for each country of the Network. Regional variations are also indicated where applicable.

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Compulsory education in Europe, 2011/12

Date of publication: 14 June 2011

A table representing the duration of compulsory education (full-time and part-time) in Europe.

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 Adults in Formal Education.jpg Adults in Formal Education: Policies and Practices in Europe

Date of publication: 7 March 2011

Drafted in the context of the European Commission's Action Plan on Adult Learning (2007-2010), this Eurydice report looks at education and training opportunities for under-qualified adults and also covers policies and measures for enhancing the participation of adults in higher education.

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Grade Retention during Compulsory Education in Europe: Regulations and Statistics

Date of publication: 7 February 2011

The study compares how grade retention making pupils repeat a school year - is applied in schools across Europe and produces an inventory of the legislations and practices in place. It shows that those practices vary greatly between countries: whether a child has to repeat a year at school depends more on the educational culture concerned and teacher appraisal than on the child's performance. It was produced for the Commission by the Eurydice network and covers 31 countries (all EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey).

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