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Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

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Overview Portugal

Contents

Portugal:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Portugal:Historical Development

Portugal:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Portugal:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Portugal:Political and Economic Situation

Portugal:Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Portugal:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Portugal:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Portugal:Organisation of Private Education

Portugal:National Qualifications Framework

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Portugal:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Funding in Education

Portugal:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Portugal:Higher Education Funding

Portugal:Adult Education and Training Funding

Portugal:Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Portugal:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Higher Education

Portugal:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Portugal:First Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Bachelor

Portugal:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Portugal:Second Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Portugal:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Portugal:Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Distribution of Responsibilities

Portugal:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Portugal:Main Providers

Portugal:Main Types of Provision

Portugal:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Portugal:Teachers and Education Staff

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Management and Other Education Staff

Portugal:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Portugal:Management Staff for Higher Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Quality Assurance

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Educational Support and Guidance

Portugal:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Portugal:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Portugal:Mobility and Internationalisation

Portugal:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Mobility in Higher Education

Portugal:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Portugal:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Portugal:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:National Reforms in School Education

Portugal:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Portugal:National Reforms in Higher Education

Portugal:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Portugal:European Perspective

Portugal:Legislation

Portugal:Institutions

Portugal:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The curriculum is determined at national level and consists of content and objectives that, properly coordinated, constitute the organizational basis of student education and performance assessment, implemented via syllabuses drawn up in line with the stipulations of Decree-law n. 139/2012, 5th July, in its latest wording.

The knowledge and abilities that each student must acquire and develop for each level and cycle of education is found in each subject’s curriculum, as well as the curriculum standards to be achieved per year of schooling and cycle.

As such, within the bounds of their pedagogical and organizational schools can manage the curriculum, respecting the boundaries outlined in the abovementioned legislation.

In relation to the 1st cycle of Basic Education and observing the stipulations of the abovementioned Decree-Law, the curriculum is made up of the following subjects and respective timetable:

 

1st and 2nd grades:

  • Portuguese (a minimum of 7 class hours per week);
  • Mathematics (a minimum of 7 class hours per week);
  • Environment Studies (a minimum of 3 class hours per week);
  • Expressions (a minimum of 3 class hours per week);
  • Study support (a minimum of 1.5 hours per week);
  • Complementary provision (1 hour per week);

And also, on an optional basis:

  • Curricular Enrichment Activities (between 5 and 7.5 class hours per week);
  • Moral and Religious Education (1 hour per week).

 

3rd and 4th grades:

  • Portuguese (a minimum of 7 class hours per week);
  • Mathematics (a minimum of 7 class hours per week);
  • English (a minimum of 2 class hours per week);
  • Environment Studies (a minimum of 3 class hours per week);
  • Expressions (a minimum of 3 class hours per week);
  • Study support (a minimum of 1.5 hours per week);
  • Complementary provision (1 hour per week);

And also, on an optional basis:

  • Curricular Enrichment Activities (between 3 and 3.5 class hours per week);
  • Moral and Religious Education (1 hour per week).

 

The teaching of English language is compulsory from the 3rd year onwards, for at least 2 hours a week.

1st cycle schools with the adequate resources can begin introductory, speaking-focussed English, from the 1st year onwards, whether as complementary provision or curriculum enrichment activities.

The teaching is undertaken by a generalist teacher, with the exception of English in the 3rd and 4th year, which is taught by a teacher with a professional qualification for that purpose.

The generalist teacher can be assisted in the classroom, in any subject or exchange with another teacher from the same school in mathematics and Portuguese.

The curriculum of the 2nd and 3rd cycle of Basic Education is organized into multidisciplinary areas of study, having one specialist teacher per area.

The study plan for each cycle includes the following curriculum components/subjects, organized according to a minimum per curriculum area and a maximum per year or cycle.

Schools decide how to organize the period of time for each lesson.

 

2nd Cycle

Curriculum areas/subjects

No. of minutes per week

5th Grade

6th Grade

Total 2nd cycle

Languages and Social Studies:

Portuguese

English

History and Geography of Portugal

500

500

1000

Mathematics and Sciences:

Mathematics

Natural Sciences

350

350

700

Art and Technological Education:

Art

Technological Education

Music

270

270

540

Physical Education

135

135

270

Religious and Moral Education (optional)

(45)

(45)

(90)

Fixed time

1350
(1395)

1350
(1395)

2700
(2790)

Extra subject (compulsory for students, if created by the school, according to the academic credit available)

Supervised study (compulsory for schools, optional for students, compulsory if so indicated by the class council with the agreement of parent/guardian)

200

200

400

3rd Cycle

Curriculum areas/subjects

No. of minutes per week

7th Grade

8th Grade

9th Grade

Total 3rd cycle

Portuguese

200

200

200

600

English
Foreign Language II (a)

270

225

225

720

Human and Social Sciences:

History

Geography

200

200

250

650

Mathematics

200

200

200

600

Physical and Natural and Sciences:

Natural Sciences

Physics

270

270

270

810

Expressive skills and technological education:

Art

ICT and a school (subject created by the school as part of school provision) 

Physical Education

300

300

250

850

Religious and Moral Education (optional)

(45)

(45)

(45)

(135)

Fixed time

1530
(1575)

1485
(1530)

1485
(1530)

4500
(4635)

Extra subject (compulsory for students, if created by the school, according to the academic credit available)

(a) English is compulsory for 5 years (in the 2nd and 3rd cycle of Basic Education). The learning of a second foreign language is compulsory in the 3rd cycle. Students can choose to take French, German and/or Spanish, as a second foreign language, depending on the available resources.

In addition to the 3rd cycle curriculum, schools can offer an extra subject (of compulsory attendance), according to the resources available.

 

Teaching Methods and Materials

The curriculum is centred in the knowledge and the skills that students are expected to acquire and develop by the end of each school year or cycle of education.

The following curriculum documents reference support the curriculum for basic education, defined at central level and are mandatory:

  • Programmes - designed for all basic education subjects;
  • Curriculum Standards – consistently define the essential knowledge and capacities that students should acquire in the different school years or cycles;
  • Programme Guidelines – designed for extra-curricular activities in the 1st cycle of basic education in relation to English, music and sport.

As regards foreign languages the CEFRL – Common European Framework of Reference for Foreign Languages is a reference document.

They are presently available for download in the website of Directorate General of Education , a central service of the Ministry of Education.

 

Textbooks

From the school year of 2016-2017 all students of the 1st year of the 1st cycle of Basic Education started receiving free of charge all the text books, a measure that the Government wants to extend to all students of the 1st cycle of Basic Education from the school year 2017-2018 onwards.

The process of the evaluation, certification and selection of textbooks involves bodies previously accredited by the Ministry of Education and evaluation committees, as well as teachers, within the framework of the governing and educational bodies of the school or of the school cluster.

The evaluation, certification and selection process can be divided into two stages:

  • A stage of evaluation and certification of the textbooks, headed by bodies previously accredited by the Ministry of Education, namely, higher education institutions (public, private or with public recognition), official teacher organizations, scientific associations or bodies and also specifically set up evaluation committees providing scientific-pedagogic quality certification;
  • An evaluation and selection stage, undertaken by teachers in schools, focusing on the suitability of the textbooks to their educational project.

Basic and secondary education textbooks typically remain in use for a period of six years and must follow the subject syllabus closely.

The selection process of textbooks for students with special educational needs of a permanent nature must involve special needs teachers.

In relation to teaching methods and pedagogical resources, teachers have autonomy, although individual schools may adopt certain teaching approaches and methodologies or produce pedagogical resources to shared amongst the teachers of the school or of the school cluster.

In addition to textbooks, teachers and schools can use other materials to support teaching and learning. These are not subject to assessment and certification procedures or formal adoption.