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Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Portugal

Contents

Portugal:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Portugal:Historical Development

Portugal:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Portugal:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Portugal:Political and Economic Situation

Portugal:Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Portugal:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Portugal:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Portugal:Organisation of Private Education

Portugal:National Qualifications Framework

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Portugal:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Funding in Education

Portugal:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Portugal:Higher Education Funding

Portugal:Adult Education and Training Funding

Portugal:Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Portugal:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Higher Education

Portugal:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Portugal:First Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Bachelor

Portugal:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Portugal:Second Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Portugal:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Portugal:Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Distribution of Responsibilities

Portugal:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Portugal:Main Providers

Portugal:Main Types of Provision

Portugal:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Portugal:Teachers and Education Staff

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Management and Other Education Staff

Portugal:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Portugal:Management Staff for Higher Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Quality Assurance

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Educational Support and Guidance

Portugal:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Portugal:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Portugal:Mobility and Internationalisation

Portugal:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Mobility in Higher Education

Portugal:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Portugal:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Portugal:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:National Reforms in School Education

Portugal:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Portugal:National Reforms in Higher Education

Portugal:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Portugal:European Perspective

Portugal:Legislation

Portugal:Institutions

Portugal:Glossary

Definition of the Target Group(s)

There are also additional support measures available for those students at risk of repeating the year or dropping out of school. These aim to help students achieve academic success. Those included in this group are:

  • Pupils from deprived socio-economic environments;
  • pupils who have newly arrived in Portugal;
  • pupils from families that have an itinerant work.

Among these groups of pupils are included those with:

  1. Learning difficulties;
  2. different mother language other than Portuguese;
  3. integration problems in the school community;
  4. risk of school and social exclusion or dropout;
  5. record of learning difficulties, in particular, no motivation, high rate of absence, low self-esteem and lack of expectations in relation to learning and future life as well as the mismatch between school culture and background culture.


Specific Support Measures

Support measures include:

  1. Support in Portuguese as a non native language;
  2. implementation of literacy and intercultural projects;
  3. mediators support;
  4. reinforcement measures to support studying;
  5. additional support included in the pupil’s timetable;
  6. alternative pathways (alternative curriculum and integrated programs of education and training that provide dual certification;
  7. referral to vocational courses, among others.

For basic education students, measures promoting academic success and combating school dropouts have been adopted. These include:

  • Temporary creation of relatively homogeneous groups in structural disciplines, according to school resources;
  • collaboration in the arts areas from teachers from other teaching cycles in the 1st cycle of basic education;
  • assistance in the classroom, emphasising collaborative experiences and practices;
  • continuing study support in the 1st cycle of basic education, alongside other supplementary curriculum activities;
  • provision of greater monitoring of students, via study support in the 2nd cycle of basic education;
  • non-scheduled support for students in the 1st and 2nd cycles in the academic calendar;
  • monitoring of students who progress to the 2nd and 3rd cycle with a grade below 3 in Portuguese and Maths in the previous school year;
  • under exceptional conditions that are duly justified by the school and approved by the relevant educational administration services, the adoption of different pathways, such as alternative integrated education and training pathways and programmes adapted to the student’s profile and characteristics;
  • referral to a vocational educational pathway after the redefinition of the student’s educational path, resulting from the opinion of monitoring and guidance teams and with the commitment and agreement of the student’s parent or guardian.

For students who have shown learning difficulties at any point in basic education in any subject there is a pedagogical plan that contains recovery strategies to overcome the problems detected.

Whenever student's learning difficulties are detected in upper-secondary school, measures are taken to prevent school failure and dropout, via the following:

  • Referral to educational provision that is adapted to the student's profile, after the redefinition of their school pathway, resulting from the opinion of monitoring and guidance teams;
  • implementation of a modular system, as an alternative to the regular education curriculum for students over 16;
  • encouraging both student and parent or guardian to choose the school whose educational project that best suits the student’s pathway and motivations for learning.


Distance Learning for Itinerancy

The Portuguese Ministry of Education has conceived and implemented the project “Distance Learning for Itinerancy” (replacing the previous project “Escola Móvel”). This project, created by Ordinance no. 812/2010, 26th August, aims to ensure school education (regarding 2nd and 3rd cycle of Basic Education and Secondary Education) to these pupils that, by constant necessity of mobility by their parents or legal guardians, are not able to attend mainstream education. In this sense, from the second cycle of basic education onward, children may, upon request of their parents or legal guardians, attend to a system of distance learning, which is based in a specific secondary school (Escola Secundária de Fonseca Benevides, in Lisbon).


TEIP Programme

TEIP 3 Programme was created following TEIP 2 Programme (Normative Order no. 20/2012, 3rd October). The TEIP 3 programme is designed exclusively for schools in underprivileged areas, with high dropout levels, which currently represent around 16% of Portuguese schools.

Its aim are to respond to “social contexts that encourage the risk of failure in the normal education system, due to the fact that academic success is rarer in socially and economically disadvantaged areas than the national average, where violence, indiscipline, dropouts, school failure and child labour are examples of problems”. In this sense, it is expected to promote learning and academic success, as well as to ensure greater efficiency in managing available resources and greater effectiveness in the results achieved.

The main objectives of TEIP 3 Programme are:

  • To improve the quality of learning, reflected on the students’ achievement;
  • to combat indiscipline, early school leaving and school absence;
  • to create  conditions for guidance learning and qualified transition from school to working life;
  • to promote coordination between school, social partners and training institutions from the education territory.

In TEIP schools there is tutoring and other types of support geared towards specific students or groups of students. These include pedagogical support, tutorials, cultural mediation, supplementary activities, parental involvement, amongst other and are designed for students at risk of dropping out of school early.

The member schools of a TEIP3 undertake a thorough analysis (self-assessment) and define and implement an improvement plan which, as part of the educational and school autonomy project, involves a number of measures and activities at the school and in the community, specifically geared towards:

  1. The quality of learning and students’ educational achievement;
  2. reducing dropout, absenteeism and indiscipline levels among students;
  3. the transition from school to work;
  4. the role of school as a key player in the educational and cultural life of the communities in which it operates.

Mid-year and final reports are drawn up, which are not only useful contributions for schools towards self-regulation, but also instruments of accountability for the responsible entity (Ministry of Education).

The mid-year report focuses on collecting information from the 1st term of the academic year and serves as a springboard for the school to compare the challenges established in the initial improvement plan with the results actually achieved in that period, challenging it to introduce pertinent reformulations in useful time in order to improve the educational dimension.

Since the final report collates all the results obtained in the various dimensions of the Programme, verifying which goals have been met, providing evidence of processes and results and identifying challenges and improvement proposals, it is not only a powerful support instrument for the school-organisation’s reflection process, but is also fundamental as the basis for transversal assessments of the Programme.


Portuguese as a non native Language - PLNM

The measures developed by the Ministry of Education within the scope of Portuguese as a non native Language - PLNM (Português Língua Não Materna) in basic and secondary education emerged from the need to respond to the current linguistic and cultural diversity existing in Portuguese society, stemming from migratory movements.

The Ministry of Education believes the knowledge of the language of the host country is fundamental for access to the curriculum and academic success, favoring the integration of students not only at an educational level but also at a socio-affective level.

According to their previous formal education, each student is integrated in the school year equivalent to that of his/her country of origin. The student will attend classes with the other class students but, not being a native speaker of Portuguese, will benefit from specific support in Portuguese Language.

When a student that doesn’t have Portuguese as its native language is integrated in the public system of education (basic or secondary), he/she takes a PLNM diagnostic test at school.

This test will provide the teacher with information on his/her knowledge of the Portuguese Language and, according to the results obtained, permit the student to be placed at a level of linguistic proficiency to carry out specific PLNM activities.

For teachers to be able to define specific strategies for these students, they need to know their prior formal education. Information is also requested about the language spoken at home, with friends and family and expected period of stay in Portugal, among other aspects.

Guiding principles concerning PLNM:

  1. Pupils of PLNM while in initiation levels (A1, A2) or intermediate (B1) are subjected, in 6th and 9th grades, to a cycle final test, and to a final national exam at the end of 12th grade, whether or not attending the course of PLNM in replacement of Portuguese discipline.
  2. in the first cycle of basic education and without prejudice to other measures applicable under the schools, autonomy, namely the assistance of teachers inside the classroom by other teacher, PLNM might be given within the component of “study support”.    
  3. pupils at the initiation or intermediate level should use suitable strategies to their level of language proficiency based on plan of pedagogic monitoring, aimed at developing of knowledge and skills in the scope the Portuguese, as a study object and the language of schooling.
  4. internal assessment of pupils at the initiation level (A1/A2) or intermediate (B1) should take place based on PLNM specific evaluation criteria, approved by the Pedagogical Council, as well as the pedagogical monitoring plans prepared.
  5. barring the necessary adaptations regarding pupils’ age, the development of activities in the scope of PLNM, even during basic education, might be guided by the Secondary Education Curricular Guidelines for Portuguese Non Speakers (PLNM), since this document is structured by levels of language proficiency and thematic areas.
  6. the school, within its autonomy and its educational project, might implement other specific measures to develop PLNM, including tutoring or mentoring programs.