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Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

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Overview Portugal

Contents

Portugal:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Portugal:Historical Development

Portugal:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Portugal:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Portugal:Political and Economic Situation

Portugal:Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Portugal:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Portugal:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Portugal:Organisation of Private Education

Portugal:National Qualifications Framework

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Portugal:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Funding in Education

Portugal:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Portugal:Higher Education Funding

Portugal:Adult Education and Training Funding

Portugal:Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Portugal:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Higher Education

Portugal:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Portugal:First Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Bachelor

Portugal:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Portugal:Second Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Portugal:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Portugal:Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Distribution of Responsibilities

Portugal:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Portugal:Main Providers

Portugal:Main Types of Provision

Portugal:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Portugal:Teachers and Education Staff

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Management and Other Education Staff

Portugal:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Portugal:Management Staff for Higher Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Quality Assurance

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Educational Support and Guidance

Portugal:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Portugal:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Portugal:Mobility and Internationalisation

Portugal:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Mobility in Higher Education

Portugal:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Portugal:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Portugal:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:National Reforms in School Education

Portugal:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Portugal:National Reforms in Higher Education

Portugal:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Portugal:European Perspective

Portugal:Legislation

Portugal:Institutions

Portugal:Glossary

Other Educational Provision

Basic Education can also be concluded and certified via different pathways adapted to each student’s profile and individual characteristics, such as:

  • Alternative Curricular Pathways (APC);
  • Integrated Education and Training Programme (IETP);
  • Education and Training Courses (ETTC).

 

Alternative Curricular Pathways

The APC are an exceptional measure (created in 2006) to be applied when students show no progress in terms of school results, even after the adoption of measures promoting success whose goals are school re-orientation.

Classes with alternative curricular pathways have a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 20 students: These classes can be transitional from 1st to 2nd cycle (made up of a minimum of 10 students and a maximum of 15 students from the 1st cycle) or from the 2nd and 3rd cycle of Basic Education.

These classes are designed for specific groups of students up to the age of 18 who meet the following conditions:

  • Having at least two retentions within the same cycle;
  • a minimum age of 12 in the 1st cycle and failing the 4th year, 13 in the 2nd cycle or 15 years in the 3rd cycle;
  • to be at risk of dropping out;
  • with integration problems in the school community and at risk of marginalisation and social exclusion.

This training is made up of a general training component, an additional training component and artistic, technological and/or vocational training component, which should include school subjects, according to the educational project of the structural unit, emphasizing practical training in technical or artistic areas, in partnership with community bodies.

The work methodology used ensures flexibility in terms of mechanisms of organization and management, promoting equity of access and attainment of academic success. This pathway allows students to continue studying, in order to complete compulsory schooling and avoid social exclusion.

During the 2015/16 academic year, 155 classes involving 1721 students were active. This measure is transient, lacking annual regulations before implementation.

 

Integrated Education and Training Programme

The IETP was created from the Elimination of Child Labour Plan (ECLP), in 1999, redrafted in 2003, from the need to extend and make more flexible the response to cases of school leavers involved in child labour, or other forms of exploitation of minors via social reintegration through school, becoming a socio-educational and training measure geared towards inclusion.

The programme also encourages competencies for citizenship and social, community and solidarity activities.

It is temporary and exceptional, designed for young people between 15 and 18 who are at risk and/or in danger of educational and social exclusion, conferring certification for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of Basic Education.

The IETP measure is based on practical and differentiated work methodology, in order to promote education, vocational development and the conclusion of compulsory schooling.

Close supervision by the teaching team, the tutor and the local intervention officer (LIO), usually a social worker, facilitates a closer link between the school, family and social partners, creating the conditions for the reintegration of children and young people in the school environment.

During the school year 2015/16, 145 class-groups with a total of 2,025 students were authorised.

 

Education and Training Courses

The Education and Training Courses are an opportunity to conclude compulsory education through a flexible path adjusted to the student’s interests or in order to continue studies or training that allows him a qualified entry in the work world.

Each course corresponds to an education/training stage (from Type 1 to Type 7), the access to which is related with the school and professional level of qualification attained. In the end of each stage the student obtains an education and professional certification.

These courses are indicated to those who:

  • are 15 years old or older;
  • have the 2nd and 3rd cycles of Basic Education or Secondary Education incomplete or Secondary Education already concluded;
  • have no professional certification or is interested in acquiring a professional certification superior to the one he already has.

 

Organizational Variations and Syllabuses

In Basic and Secondary Education there are still some organizational variations, designed to successfully meet pedagogical needs that occur in different circumstances.

 

Face-to-face teaching for mobile schoolchildren

This is a schooling offer that aims to guarantee that the children of mobile workers receive compulsory schooling, from pre-primary to secondary education.

This covers all students who, due to the itinerant nature of their parents’/guardians’ professions, frequently move to different geographical locations and, as a result, attend a large number of schools over the academic year (host schools), for varying lengths of time, thereby making use of the statute for mobile schoolchildren.

This provision aims to ensure educational continuity, as well as the assessment of the learning of mobile workers’ children who are of compulsory school age, contributing to school success.

 

Distance Teaching 

Distance Teaching was created and governed by Ordinance n. 85/2014, 15th April, after experimental pedagogical projects previously undertaken in this area [Escola Móvel].

The objective of DT is to meet the specific educational needs children and young people who, for a variety of reasons, find themselves in temporary or permanent situations which prevent them from regularly attending a school and, as a result, lack continuity in their learning. This is the case of the children of mobile workers and students of the Ajuda de Mãe.

DT, based at Fonseca Benevides Secondary School with 3rd Cycle, in Lisbon, is the only official educational provision of this type, provided by the Ministry of Education and Science for Basic Education (from the 2nd cycle onwards) and Secondary Education.

Due to the geographical dispersion of students, and despite being based at the abovementioned school, where students enrol, DT works within a network and coordinated with host schools located throughout the country which take students temporarily throughout the academic year. 

DT operates via a digital platform, made up of virtual classrooms with classes organized by target groups, year and cycle/year of schooling. The e-learning environment created makes it possible for the main activity focusses on developing suitable solutions for each student’s needs.

This allows the student to learn at their own pace, in an collaborative atmosphere and in real-time, while being monitored ad assessed.

Students enrolled on DT are guaranteed personalised supervision via tutors in conjunction with the teachers responsible for each subject and/or each subject area, following the syllabuses and curriculum standards of the educational system.

 

Home Schooling and Individual Tuition 

These are types of school education that are designed to ensure fulfilment of compulsory education, as well as allowing students to pursue their studies because, for a number of reasons, they are prevented from attending school.

These types of schooling are exceptional and are designed to help families who, for reasons of professional mobility and other strictly personal reasons, wish to choose their children are taught.

The responsibility for the quality of the student’s education lies with the parent/guardian or with the student him/herself, when no longer a minor.

Home schooling is taught at the home of the student, by a relative or by a person with whom the student lives.

Individual Tuition is administered by a qualified teacher to a single student outside of an educational establishment.

Assessment of learning is supervised and monitored on a termly basis via the presentation of assessment of learning that demonstrates progress at the school where the student is enrolled.

If the student attends the 1stcycle they must sit end-of-cycle Portuguese and mathematics exams as proof of equivalence, also taking an oral test for Portuguese and the equivalence exams required for the remaining subjects, as stipulated in the Regulation for Final and National Exams for Basic and Secondary Education, which are published annually.

Home Schooling and Individual Tuition require an agreement between the school where the student is enrolled and the parent/guardian where the responsibilities of both parties are established.

 

Educational Priority Areas Programme 

The Educational Priority Areas Programme (EPAP) was initially set up in 1996 and implemented in school clusters/non-grouped schools (hereinafter referred to as organizational units) located in economically and socially disadvantaged areas, characterised by poverty and social exclusion, where violence, indiscipline, school abandonment and failure are more prevalent.

Its overall goals are:

  • Improving learning quality and consequently students’ educational success;
  • combatting school dropouts and students leaving the education system early;
  • creating conditions that facilitate educational guidance and qualified transition from school to working life;
  • improved liaison between school measures and partners in the field. 

Currently, the programme covers 137 school clusters/non-grouped schools, which corresponds to 17% of all organizational units (OU) in the public system on the mainland, covering 15% of total students nationwide. 

The OU that are part of the EPAP programme define and implement a multi-year improvement plan involved in the respective educational projects.

This Plan is based on the structural focusses of the programme - support for improved learning; prevention of abandonment, absenteeism and indiscipline; management and organization; school-family relationship - and structured training, objectives and standards providing additional human and financial resources. 

The OU also benefit from regular monitoring by an education specialist who is linked to a higher education institution and plays a role of external expert. 

This programme has encouraged:

  • the consolidation of collaborative and reflective work amongst teachers emphasising pedagogical supervision strategies between peers;
  • the effectiveness of the role of top and intermediate leadership;
  • the adoption of different strategies for class group organization to facilitate pedagogic differentiation;
  • the emphasis on mediation strategies and the link between school and the community, through the mentoring and internal and external links developed by multidisciplinary teams made up of teachers and specialist professionals;
  • the adoption of strategic management and administration options, such as the implementation/improvement of monitoring and assessment mechanisms and the training/capacity building of its human resources.

 

Mais Sucesso Escolar Programme

As a result of the assessment Mais Sucesso Escolar Programme during the period 2009-2013, support was extended to the temporary creation of relatively homogenous as part of the Mais Sucesso Escolar methodologies, called Fénix and Turma Mais.

36 units signed up to this initiative, with 12 implementing the Turma Mais methodology and 24 the Projeto Fénix, committing to fulfilling a set of standards to be achieved at the end of the academic year. A total of 587.5 hours of teaching credit was allocated for the implementation of the selected methodologies, which corresponds to an average of 16.32 of credit per OU.

Turma Mais is a class with no fixed pupils that temporarily brings together students from different classes of the same year. This group of students is subject to a schedule similar to their original class, with the same timetable and the same teacher per subject.

Students use the same syllabus as their original class, allowing them to enjoy greater and more individualised and harmonised support in terms of learning pace.

The Fénix methodology is based on a school organisation model that gives more personalised support to students with learning difficulties in Portuguese, Mathematics, or another identified by the school.

This model involves the creation of Fénix classes - "nests" – where students who need more support in which are temporarily integrated, allowing more individual instruction, respecting different learning paces in different ways.

In the 2015/2016 academic year, the methodologies are implemented in 42 OU with the additional support of the ME.

 

Escolhas Programme

The Escolhas Programme is a national government programme, created in 2001 whose aim is to promote the social inclusion of children and young people from disadvantaged backgrounds, promoting equal opportunities and improving social cohesion.

Currently in its 6th generation, in effect until 31st December, 2018, it boasts agreements with consortia of 88 local social inclusion projects in disadvantaged communities, located in areas with high numbers of descendants of immigrants and ethnic minorities, and 2 projects in other countries, namely Luxemburg and United Kingdom.

The projects last for one calendar year and may be renewed annually up to a maximum of two times.

They are divided into five strategic areas of intervention: school inclusion and non-formal education; vocational training and employability; community activity and citizenship; digital inclusion and, finally, entrepreneurship and empowerment of young people.

The school inclusion and non-formal education strategic area includes projects such as the following:

  • Preventing students leaving school early by referring them to other school options and the creation of new educational choices;
  • promoting school success in or out of school via personal, social and cognitive skills through formal and non-formal education;
  • co-responsibility of family members in the parental supervision process.

The programme has been known for its effectiveness and international recognition, having been designated as a best practice in the field of integration of immigrants and the policies for prevention of delinquency and crime.