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Portugal:Mobility in Higher Education

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Overview Portugal

Contents

Portugal:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Portugal:Historical Development

Portugal:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Portugal:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Portugal:Political and Economic Situation

Portugal:Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Portugal:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Portugal:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Portugal:Organisation of Private Education

Portugal:National Qualifications Framework

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Portugal:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Funding in Education

Portugal:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Portugal:Higher Education Funding

Portugal:Adult Education and Training Funding

Portugal:Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Portugal:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Higher Education

Portugal:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Portugal:First Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Bachelor

Portugal:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Portugal:Second Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Portugal:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Portugal:Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Distribution of Responsibilities

Portugal:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Portugal:Main Providers

Portugal:Main Types of Provision

Portugal:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Portugal:Teachers and Education Staff

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Management and Other Education Staff

Portugal:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Portugal:Management Staff for Higher Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Quality Assurance

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Educational Support and Guidance

Portugal:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Portugal:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Portugal:Mobility and Internationalisation

Portugal:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Mobility in Higher Education

Portugal:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Portugal:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Portugal:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:National Reforms in School Education

Portugal:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Portugal:National Reforms in Higher Education

Portugal:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Portugal:European Perspective

Portugal:Legislation

Portugal:Institutions

Portugal:Glossary

Student Mobility

Student Mobility

It is the firm conviction of the Portuguese government policy that student mobility is a great opportunity and therefore aims to enable most students to have access to at least a short period of mobility , not only by experience and ability to benefit from an education system different, but also for all the soft skills ( soft skills ) that can be acquired . For this reason there has been a conscious effort to remove obstacles to mobility , invest in the modernization and internationalization of higher education institutions (IES) implement the Bologna Process and develop quality assurance through a system of evaluation and accreditation . Given this priority , have been implemented and promoted various programs and initiatives, both nationally and internationally.

Regarding the obstacles to student mobility , both for those who want to enter and for those who wish to leave, one of the many difficulties may be of economic constraints . To address this issue , was introduced in 2007 by the Portuguese Government , a system of student loan , implemented through a mutual guarantee underwritten by the state. Several banks have joined this initiative , and in 2008 , the Government strengthened the mutual guarantee fund . Schemes established by Decree - Law No. 309-A/2007 of September 7 , apply to students enrolled in institutions of higher education and the opportunity to extend loans to students participating in international mobility programs , as well as students who are attending exchange programs.

As previously stated , there is state support to students of 1st and 2nd cycles from aggregates considered disadvantaged , thereby facilitating overcoming financial difficulties , payment of tuition , housing, meals , books , etc. . These ' social grants ' are transferable and shall exist either for public IES , either to private.

Although no student can survive only with the subsidy , this represents a substantial financial support.

In the 3rd cycle and the level of post -doctoral , is given a significant percentage of scholarships to students enrolled in foreign universities or joint research programs , including through scientific research grants and other grants awarded by the Foundation for Science and Technology.

Within the framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme, more recently, Erasmus + program, in particular the sectoral Erasmus programme/Higher Education as a complement to the grants given from community funds, so-called BSE-SOC were adopted, which are supplementary grants for Portuguese students, were adopted for underprivileged students who are mobile within the Erasmus programme and already receive social support (Ordinance No. 17706/2009, 24 July). This is a national, state-funded measure implemented by the Portuguese ANPROALV, which aims to contribute to socio-economic equity of opportunities for access to this programme. Students are eligible if they receive an Erasmus scholarship allocated by the respective IES and benefit from a scholarship in higher education. The main objective of this measure is to facilitate access to the programme and specifically to ease mobility in higher education for learning / training purposes for students who may have economic difficulties. This supplementary aid from the Portuguese state will be maintained while the Erasmus+ Programme is in effect, under the terms of Dispatch no. 10973-D/2014, 27th August.

The need to obtain entry visa can also be considered another of the obstacles to mobility, particularly for students / teachers in third countries . However , in 2007 was adopted in Portugal a new Immigration Law (Law No. 23/2007 , of 4 July), which transposed into national law various EU Directives , in particular policies on visas for students and researchers from third countries ( 2004/114/EC and 2005/71/EC) . This measure made it extremely easy and quick to issue visas for these categories . Additionally ,Ordinance No. 208/2008 , of 27 February, establishes a procedure for expeditious issue of visas for students from third countries participating in European programs or students of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries . These measures have facilitated the participation in programs involving students from outside the EU , such as Erasmus Mundus and other bilateral cooperation, insofar allow the process of obtaining a visa is completed in 30 days.

Additionally , Portugal adopted the European Quality Charter for Mobility (current Erasmus Student Charter), as well as the Erasmus University Charter ( EUC ) (current Erasmus Charter for Higher Education - ECHE ) at the Erasmus student mobility for studies ( SMS ) and/or training (SMP), centerpieces of this program, allows students of IES national advantage an integrated period of study or training abroad between 2 and 12 months, without any obstacle to return to his academic IES regarding validation or recognition of qualifications obtained abroad or completed . Responsibility for recognition through the ECTS in the case studies, or by other means in the case of training,is the responsibility of the IES involved.

Nevertheless, outside the exchange programs and cooperation agreements, students can also take advantage of an experiment of autonomous mobility to the extent that national institutions of higher learning have adopted the Bologna process (see, for example Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto).

Participation in EU programmes:

Erasmus - Portugal participates in Erasmus Sectoral Programme since its implementation by the European Commission in 1987 . In Portugal , Erasmus has allowed an increasing participation of young people attending higher education, assuming as the main source of funding for the mobility of students in higher education.

State support of the Portuguese Erasmus students in disadvantaged socio-economic situation , through the grants BSE - SOC , plus , on the other hand, the availability of loans to interest controlled by several financial institutions in order to facilitate both access to higher education , wants access to the Erasmus mobility. However , this last measure has had so far a search that , although growing, is still moderate.

All grantees with special needs selected by their IES for Erasmus mobility may also apply for an additional grant, supported by EU funds. Notwithstanding the latter support the mobility of students with special needs is very limited, so this will require that the design of strategies that will increase the number of students with these characteristics in mobility, particularly for the next Erasmus+.

The Erasmus Charter for Higher Education - ECHE is a pre-requisite for higher education institutions that wish to participate in the Erasmus+ Programme, regardless of the type of activity they envisage: student mobility; recent graduates; teaching or other staff of the institution (part of Key-action 1 – Mobility for learning purposes); or strategic partnerships and knowledge alliances (Key-action 2), which have substituted the previous intensive programmes (IP) and centralised actions (multilateral networks and monitoring measures).

Subject to continual monitoring by the National Agencies, those institutions with an Erasmus University Charter (EUC), as part of the Lifelong Learning Programme PALV, and all those wish to participate in the Programme for the first time, presented their applications for accreditation for the new Programme in 2013. Accreditation occurs annually in order to reach more and more higher education institutions throughout Europe and so that, for those institutions with positive monitoring they can benefit from simplified procedures.

In Portugal , there are about 90 IES participating every year in Erasmus, with 95 institutions obtained in 2013, the Charter Erasmus / ECHE (representing a percentage of 71.4% of the total universe of IES, public and private ). Each year run in mobility to Europe more than five thousand students, for a period of study (SMS) or a probationary period (SMP).

In terms of Studies (SMS) implemented by IES, student exchanges within Europe are promoted in order to enable mobility to study at partner IES for between 3-12 months. This more specifically meets the objective of the sector programme that supports the creation of a European Higher Education Area.

  • Seeking to contribute to the development of quality lifelong learning and the opportunities it affords;

  • Consolidating personal fulfilment, social cohesion, active citizenship and European citizenship;

  • Promoting creativity, competitiveness and employability;

  • Increasing participation in lifelong learning;

  • Promoting learning and linguistic diversity;

  • Exploring the results, innovative processes and products.

Within Europe there are student exchange placements (SMP), which are implemented either by the IES or by consortia, for periods between 2 to 12 months, for training purposes in the workplace in enterprises where there are protocols and aims to:

  • Help students adapt to the demands of the EU labour market;

  • Allow students to develop competences, like knowledge of a new language and improve knowledge about the economic, social and cultural situation of a country within the context of acquiring work experience;

  • Promote cooperation between IES and enterprises;

  • Contribute to the development of a group of future, international-class professionals who are well-qualified, experienced and open-minded.

As part of the Erasmus+ Programme, the implementation of Student Mobility for Placement (SMP) changed to include recente graduates (up to one year after the conclusion of their degree), mobility that has to be undertaken via the higher education institution where they have completed their academic cycle.

The Erasmus+ Programme also made it possible for students, by study cycle, to enjoy up to a total of 12 months of mobility, combining mobilities for studies and placements up to one year after course completion, with no limit to the number of times that they can undertake the same type of mobility and provided that this respects the established minimum number of months (3 months mobility for studies and 2 months for placements).

In the case of further study, if the student decides to progress to a second or third cycle, once again they will be able to be mobile for another 12 months. With the aim of guaranteeing better cooperation between IES and businesses and improving employability amongst higher education graduates, institutions can participate in the programme individually and/or within a national consortium.

Focussed on promoting the mobility for placements while the LLP is in effect, the Erasmus Consortia’s remit extended to other mobilities, for example, for the purpose of studies, teaching missions and mobility for teacher training and other IES staff, as part of the Erasmus+ Programme. The objectives remain the same, with the programme being extended to the promotion and implementation of other types of mobility:

  • Promote internships in the workplace, for students and recent graduates;

  • Provide visibility and promote economic, social and cultural region;

  • Establish an identity in teaching practice , learning and institutional;

  • Invest in strategic areas for competitiveness and employability;

  • Engaging the business sector in defining the profile of students in the planning stages, identifying international companies that are strategic and acceptance of trainees.

In Portugal, the Consortia have seen high levels of participation from IES, enterprises and students.  The number of students who annually join the Erasmus experience expresses the recognition that this program has met with the student population as a very significant component of their academic as well as an international experience that enhances the performance of active European citizenship.

IES are responsible for the management of Erasmus grants are allocated to them annually and, in addition to the academic and institutional responsibilities, such an undertaking includes the selection of candidates , organization and completion processes, the transfer of funds to students  monitoring of mobility as well as activity information and dissemination. The performance of these activities is reported to National Agency , responsible for management and supervision of the sector programme nationally.

In the validation and recognition process of mobility periods for learning (formal or non- formal), guaranteed transparency is a pre-requisite for obtaining qualifications within the European context, placing value on experience and learning in the context of mobility. As such, the certification of periods of study and/or internship is particularly important within the context of mobility processes. The same principle applies to Erasmus+, between 2014 and 2020, continuing to ensure the recognition of mobility periods by allocating a number of previously defined ECTS in the case of mobility for studies or internships, and the recording of mobility competencies and knowledge via Europass (Mobility and Diploma Supplement), in the case of extra curricular internships or post-graduate courses.

In Erasmus+ program, the mobility of students to study and / or training during the study period and one year after the completion of a degree, are contextualized by Key Action 1 (KA1 - Mobility for learning). This aims to develop competences, broaden understanding about practices and policies in different countries, enhance learning quality, encouraging the modernisation and internationalisation of the institutions involved, promoting the mobility of students, teachers and other staff working in higher education institutions.

Erasmus Mundus

Portugal has also been extremely active in the European Programme for cooperation and mobility in higher education: Erasmus Mundus. Since phase one of the Programme (2004-2008), Portuguese IES have been eager to participate in this programme that attracts students from all over the world to study in top class European IES. Having joint courses selected with Portuguese participation shows our excellence, but we must also note the funding for scholarships both for third country participants in these courses and more recently for European participants. For the academic year 2011-2012 Portuguese institutions participate in 28 of the Erasmus Mundus Master courses and in 6 of the joint Doctorate Programmes. Through these joint programmes and the construction of new legislation allowing joint degrees (Decree Law No. 67/2005, of March 25, and Decree Law No. 74/2006, of March 24, amended by Decree-Law No. 107/2008, of June 25) this programme also helped to implement the Bologna Process and internationalise our higher education, through these integrated partnerships.

Additionally, Portugal has had one of the most active participations in the mobility schemes with third countries or regions of the Erasmus Mundus External Cooperation Windows created in 2006, namely Action 2 of the Erasmus Mundus Programme.

We should also mention the participation in European higher education promotion projects and internationalisation of Erasmus Networks that have been financed through the Erasmus Mundus programme, aiming to further fostering mobility and cooperation. In this context, and with the goal of analysing and developing global recognition of joint, double and multiple degrees, some Erasmus Mundus National Structures, including the Portuguese, through the DGES, are involved in the project Bridge - Best Recognition Instruments for the Dialogue between Global Experts. This is an additional step to remove obstacles to mobility.

The new Erasmus+ Program boasts changes in the way international cooperation operates with countries outside Europe in the area of higher education, with individual mobility becoming part of the student mobility processes managed by the National Agency. The management of Joint Master Degrees remains centralised in Brussels (DG EAC), as do partnership projects, such as Capacity Building Projects (joint projects between IES, or structural projects involving the intervention of national authorities in project development).

Until December 2013, the Directorate-General of Higher Education (Direção Geral do Ensino Superior) was the national contact point for the Erasmus Mundus Programme. With the publication of the Resolution of the Council of Minister no. 15/2014, 24th February, National ERASMUS+ Education and Training Agency replaced it as the new national contact point for the Erasmus Mundus Programme. Any student with special needs chosen by its institution to participate in any mobility programme can apply for an EU-funded financial supplement, which will cover all the real costs that are demonstrated to be necessary to ensure mobility.

National Programmes:

The Camões - Institute for Cooperation and Language, IP, abbreviated form Camões, I.P., from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has a scholarship programme for students from Portuguese speaking African countries and East Timor, to study in Portugal. Camões, IP, offers important opportunities for students from these countries, awarding them scholarships for licenciatura degrees, for a period of 12 months that may be renewed for the number of years of the course, and also at post-graduate levels, for mestre and doutor degrees. These scholarships for post-graduates are also for periods of 12 months, in the case of mestrados (2nd cycle) they may be renewed for an equal period, but only once; for doutoramentos (3rd cycle) they are granted for a period of 12 months that can be renewed for equal periods, and a maximum of 2 times. Other areas of studies, like military studies, police studies and law studies are also covered by special scholarships and programmes. The main goals of these programmes are to: train young graduates in priority areas of development for their country of origin; give priority to applications for non-existent courses in local schools; give priority to scholarships for postgraduate studies.

Camões, I.P., is the national agency responsible for implementing external cultural and educational policies, promoting Portuguese culture and language abroad, namely at higher education level. Camões, IP awards scholarships for students and researchers of third countries with the goal of supporting the study and research of the Portuguese language and culture, scientific and professional training of Portuguese as a non mother tongue and training in the field of translation.

Camões, I.P., provides scholarships for summer courses, annual courses, and research scholarships as follows:

  • Scholarships awarded under the programme for attendance of summer courses, for a period of 1 month, non-renewable, in Portuguese language and culture, taught in Portuguese universities or other institutions recognised by Camões, I.P., are intended for students, both foreign and Portuguese, residing abroad and wishing to improve their linguistic competences. Applications must be proposed by the respective teachers of Portuguese, in the context of protocols of cooperation signed with Camões, I.P., in which the number of scholarships available is specifically accounted for;

  • Scholarships awarded under the programme for attendance of annual courses, for a period of 8 months, non-renewable, in Portuguese language and culture, taught in Portuguese IES or institutions recognised by Camões, I.P., are intended for students, both foreign and Portuguese, residing abroad and wishing to improve their linguistic competences;

  • Scholarships awarded under the Programme Fernão Mendes Pinto, for a maximum period of 12 months, that may be renewed, are aimed at graduate or undergraduate students, in their final year, both foreign and Portuguese, who are involved in projects of scientific or professional training in the field of Portuguese as a foreign language, through the Centres of Portuguese Language Camões, IP, lectureships of the Camões, IP in IES abroad and IES and institutions abroad with agreements with Camões, I.P.;

  • Scholarships awarded under the Programme Vieira, for a variable period and may be renewed, are intended for graduates, both Portuguese and foreign, residing abroad and involved in projects of training and/or improvement in the fields of translation and conference interpretation;

  • Scholarships awarded under the Protocol with the Fulbright Commission involve two types of programmes: Programme A aimed at Portuguese PhD and teachers/researchers who wish to pursue academic activities in North American Universities, for a period between 3 to 12 months; Programme B aimed at American students (masters or PhD) who wish to pursue their studies in a Portuguese University, for a period of 8 months.

Given the historical and cultural links with China, in 1989, the Instituto Português do Oriente – IPOR, was created, and established in Macau. This Institute has the objective of promoting and preserving Portuguese language and culture in the Orient. It also disseminates oriental culture in order to foster intercultural dialogue and encourage East- West relations. The Institute awards scholarships for nationals of the Asia and Pacific region to learn Portuguese at summer courses as well as one year language courses at one of the Portuguese IES.

The Luso-American Development Foundation (hereafter referred as FLAD) is a Portuguese institution and was founded by Decree-Law No. 168/85, of May 20. Its main goal is to contribute towards economic and social development in Portugal by fostering cooperation between Portugal and the United States in the fields of business, education, science, technology and culture. In order to accomplish the goals related with education, FLAD as several activities planned for 2011-2013:

Azores Program: The “Antero de Quental Exchange Agreement” is a mobility program established by the University of Azores in association with a consortium of American universities based in north-American regions where important Portuguese communities reside, namely the University of California-Berkeley, Brown University, UMass-Amherst, UMass-Dartmouth, and Bristol Community College. The agreement aims at promoting the exchange of researchers and students between the signatory universities.

Other programs: “Summer Institute on Global Environmental Issues” - The Summer Institute on Global Environmental Issues (GEI) was launched by the Luso-American Foundation in 1998 and is held every year in early July or September. It relies on the collaboration of Colorado State University, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation’s Environment Program, and theUniversity of Lisbon’s Institute of Social Sciences. This course is directed towards professionals with varied interests and responsibilities in the environmental field, namely, professors, university students, journalists, NGOs, and city councils, among others.

UMIC: The Knowledge Society Agency is the Portuguese public body whose mission is to coordinate policies for the information society and mobilise it via the promotion of dissemination, training and research activities, promoting technological development and the creation of knowledge by the scientific and technological system bodies and by companies, as well as stimulating the development of e-Science.

Other measures:

The Knowledge Society Agency - UMIC, is a public agency from the Ministry of Education, that coordinates policies related to information society, and includes, among its strategic goals the promotion of the internationalisation of creative and knowledge and technology transfer activities, as well as those of Information and Knowledge Society policy setting and monitoring. UMIC has also coordinated the e-U Virtual Campus with technical support from the FCCN - Foundation for National Scientific Computation. This project has created an extensive wireless network incorporating the country’s universities and polytechnic institutes into a single virtual campus with more than 5,000 access points through inter institutional roaming, and also including services, content and applications made available to all the institutions. The national network is also connected to the Eduroam Network which includes all EU countries.

We should also mention the important role that Portuguese IES have had in promoting and facilitating mobility, through the development of International Relation Offices. Their specially trained staff helps to inform, accompany and promote opportunities for students and academics. They have had a great impact in the increase of mobility and in making it more accessible for all students. Information can also be considered as an essential motivator, as it reduces risks and avoids the unknown. These offices have also been responsible, many times, for bilateral Protocols between IES, which often involve mobility, and promoting participation in European and International programmes.

Development of Distance Learning in Portugal has also been a priority. This issue is important, taking into account new forms of learning (e-learning and b-learning), supporting the more traditional learning system, but also allowing mobility of learners and of academics, as well as opening Higher Education to new publics.

Academic Staff Mobility

European Programmes

Staff mobility has experienced gradual growth over the years in Portugal via the Erasmus sectoral programme. The demand is also clearly higher than the number of grants funded, which determines the existence of mobilities considered as belonging to the program but whose cost is null for the same. The Erasmus + Programme will continue to allow the institutional organization of these via Key Action 1 (KA1- Learning Mobility of Individuals).

Regarding teaching staff, despite the recognition of the importance of their involvement in the Erasmus mobility, it is also recognised that there are other funding sources that support their potential mobility. In the specific case of non-teaching staff, their participation in Erasmus STT – Staff Vocational Training mobility actions have been increasingly recognised as an important contribution to the strategy of internationalisation of IES.

As for students, all ‘beneficiaries’ with special needs selected for their institution to conduct an Erasmus mobility can apply for a financial supplement, provided with EU funds. 

Teacher mobility for teaching assignments (STA) has seen more participation when compared with the mobility of staff (teaching and non -teaching) for training (STT). The professional categories covered by staff mobility for training (STT) has seen a significant number of those who work in international <p style="text-align: justify">relations departments (international office), teachers (teaching staff) and technical and administrative staff (non-teaching staff) involved.

Erasmus 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Teaching assignment (STA) 719 766 778 820 739 846 880
Staff Training (STT) 100 122 150 170 183 229 266
  • Provisional data corresponding to the assigned funding.

Source: ANPROALV, 2013.

Individual grants are attributed by the home institution based on the regulations of the European Commission regarding the funding contract and its respective annexes. Mobility grants are a contribution to expenses (travel and board) that are incurred during the scholarship for education and / or training of personnel in a foreign country. The education and training missions undertaken in Portugal for teaching and non- teaching staff as part of Erasmus are not yet formally recognized, although they can involve experience recognized in an academic context. It is important to invest in the general recognition of these missions, either as part of curriculum assessment, in the case of teachers, or within the context of performance evaluation, when talking about non-teaching staff.

Erasmus Intensive Programmes ( IP )

An Erasmus Intensive Programme ( IP ) is a program of studies of short duration (between 2 and 6 weeks of work related to a specific area) that brings together students and staff of IES from at least three participating countries in order to:

  • Encourage efficient and multinational teaching of specialist topics which might otherwise not be taught , or would be so only a limited number of IES;

  • Enable students and teachers to work together in multinational groups and so benefit from special conditions of learning and teaching is not available in a single institution , and to gain new perspectives of the topic under study;

  • Allow members of the teaching staff to exchange views on teaching content and on new approaches to curricula , and teaching methods tested in an environment of international study.

In addition to the learning outcomes on subject-related competences, IPs should favour the transmission of transversal competences. An IP can be a one-off activity or repeated over a limited number of years (maximum duration of funding three consecutive years, annual application) with 2013 as part of LLP. IP applications selected in 2012 and 2013 will not have the opportunity to apply for a renewal after 2013, due to the completion of the Lifelong Learning Programme.

However, it is important to underline that the intensive programmes have continuity in the Erasmus+ Programme, as part of the Key action 2 (KA2 – Cooperation for innovation and exchange of good practices - Strategic Partnerships). Applications must be submitted to the National Agency (NA) of the institution that coordinates the IP, on behalf of all the partners (in Portugal is Agência Nacional do Programa Erasmus+ Educação e Formação).

All IES participating in the IP must be holders of Letters Erasmus University (current ECHE).

The selection of IP participants ( teachers and students of 1st , 2nd and 3rd cycles of higher education ) is carried out by the IP consortium.

Students and staff with special needs may apply for a specific grant after they have been selected for an IP.

IES are responsible for managing the funds allocated to an IP, in addition to the academic and institutional responsibilities, such an undertaking includes the selection of candidates, organization of processes, the transfer of funding to recipients (selected candidates), monitoring of mobility and information / dissemination activities. The performance of these activities are reported to the National Agency Erasmus+ Program - Education and Training, which is responsible for the management and oversight of programme performance at national level.

Jean Monnet programme

The Jean Monnet programme aims at stimulating teaching, research and reflection in the field of European integration studies at the level of higher education institutions within and outside the European Community.

Since 2007 the Jean Monnet Programme has formed part of the new Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-2013, being continued under the current Erasmus + Program, and the shares centrally managed by DGEAC.

Amongst others, this programme is designed for:

  • Students and researchers who focus on the theme of European integration within the contexct of any higher education system within the European Ubnion or outside of it;

  • Higher education institutions located in the European Union or outside of it and recognised as such in their own countries;

  • Teachers or other staff from those institutions.


Erasmus Mundus

As already mentioned Portuguese IES have been taking part in the different actions of the Erasmus Mundus Programme since the beginning. The Erasmus Mundus Master courses have received academics from third countries, but also, when third country institutions are involved, European academics have done research or teaching periods in third countries. These joint courses have also implied many mobility periods between the participant European IES, as well as intensification of cooperation, exchange of good practices and knowledge, and development of distance learning. The “former External Cooperation Windows”, actually “Erasmus Mundus Partnership” (action 2), continues to finance a large number of academic mobilities to and from European countries. The promotion and support for this programme in Portugal, both for institutions and individual participants, has been carried out through the Portuguese Directorate General for Higher Education, (Direção-Geral do Ensino Superior – henceforth referred to as DGES) where the Erasmus Mundus National Structure is located.

With a new budget of € 940 million, Erasmus Mundus enters its second phase (2009-2013) comprising three actions:  

Action 1 - Joint Programmes at Masters (1 A) and Doctorate (1 B) levels: Three or more European Higher Education Institutions work together (in a consortium) establishing a joint master/ doctoral degree programme, to which can be added third Country institutions. Students participating in these programmes can apply for a scholarship to study in at least 2 different European countries and, when included in the joint programme, may have the chance to spend a mobility period in a Third Country partner institution. Under joint Master courses, academics may also receive a scholarship.

Action 2 - Erasmus Mundus Partnerships (former External Cooperation Window): This action aims at promoting and sustaining the organization of structured individual mobility arrangements between European and Third Country Higher Education Institutions.

Action 3 - Promotion of European Higher Education through projects enhancing the attractiveness of Europe as an educational destination and a centre of excellence at world level.

The Erasmus Mundus programme provides support to:

  • IES wishing to implement joint programmes at postgraduate level (Action 1) or to set-up cooperation partnerships between European and targeted Third Countries Higher Education Institutions (Action 2);

  • Students, Researchers and University Staff wishing to spend a study/ research / teaching period in the context of one of the Erasmus Mundus Joint Programmes (Action 1) or Partnerships (Action 2);

  • Any organisations active in the field of Higher Education wishing to develop projects aiming at promoting European Higher Education in the world (Action 3).

We should also mention that Portugal is part of the European network of Euraxess centres and researchers’ portal since the beginning, which aim to promote and support researchers’ mobility. The Euraxess Portuguese services centres and their portal are coordinated by the Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia - FCT). Another element that should be referred is that there has been a strong participation from Portuguese individual researchers, academic staff and institutions in the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Development (2007-2013). In Portugal this Programme is under the responsibility of the Office for Promotion of the Framework Programme (Gabinete de Promoção do Programa Quadro de I&DT - GPPQ ) (accessed 18/3/2013), and in some cases also FCT. Through other European Programmes, such as Tempus, Edulink, Alfa, as well as European bilateral cooperation Programmes in Higher Education academic mobility and cooperation, have also been fostered.

National Programmes: 

In the last years Portugal has invested and promoted the mobility of academic staff and researchers, not only through the participation in the already mentioned European and international programmes, but also through national programmes and policies such as the contract of Doctorates (national and foreign) in our IES and research centers and the creation of invited Chairs.

Following the guidelines of the programme launched by the former government in 2006, through the Commitment with Science (“Compromisso com a Ciência”), the People Program of the Seventh Research Framework Programme co-financed by the Marie Curie Action COFUND and the FCT Portuguese research institutions have been recruiting post-doctoral European.

All these programmes are related to the Portuguese higher education internationalisation policy, the support for the establishment of partnerships with other entities and the attraction of top level researchers to our country.

Additionally, the FCT, the main governmental agency for financing research in Portugal, funds doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships and grants for research both in Portugal and abroad, through calls for applications that open annually. This increase is also visible in the post-doctoral fellowships Programme, also on a competitive basis. Moreover, applications for sabbatical leave grants to do research periods of 3 months to one year in foreign institutions are constantly open at FCT, as well as Doctoral grants in Companies.

The Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities (Conselho de Reitores das Universidades Portuguesas henceforth referred as CRUP) also holds the management of several co-operation programmes, called "Ações Integradas", which basically are R&D projects oriented to encourage scientific projects and post-graduation studies involving research teams and teaching staff from partner institutions, namely from Spain, France and Germany.

The “Integrated Actions” are joint programmes aiming to intensify exchange and designed to encourage scientific cooperation between academics and researchers within Portugal and other countries. This exchange was initiated in 1981 by the CRUP. Currently, we have Integrated Actions with Spain, Germany and France (Accessed 8/3/2013). The selected projects promote inter-institutional cooperation and increase international visibility. Notwithstanding the above, due to financial unavailability, the application process for the Luso-Spanish Integrated Actions for the year of 2013 will not open.

Complementing this, CRUP is involved as well in building-up new partnerships with other regions of the world. In this area it is particularly envisaged to manage worldwide co-operation programmes with Lusophone countries, with emphasis on Brazil, Cape Verde and East Timor in the areas of training and with China (Macao) in the areas of research and advanced training.

The selected projects promote inter-institutional cooperation and increase international visibility.

The Camões – Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua, I.P. - Camões, I.P., also awards scholarships for researchers, teachers and Chairs as follows:

  • Scholarships awarded under the Research Programme, for a maximum period of 12 months, that may be renewed, are intended for teachers and researchers, both Portuguese and foreign, residing abroad, and who wish to undertake, in Portugal, specialised studies in the field of Portuguese language and culture, namely masters and doctorates in universities in Portugal;

  • <p style="text-align: justify">Scholarships awarded under the Pessoa Programme, for a variable period and that may be renewed, are intended for holders of Chairs in Portuguese Studies and of Departments of Portuguese in universities or institutes of research abroad, for the execution of projects for training and research in the fields of Portuguese language and culture.

There is also a protocol between the Camões, I.P., and the Fulbright Commission which regulates a programme aimed at Portuguese researchers and American students who wish to pursue research at US and Portuguese universities, respectively.

Camões, I.P in a joint protocol with the Eça de Queiroz Foundation (Accessed 8/3/2013) regulates a programme aimed at foreign advanced students, teachers and researchers who specialise in the work of Eça de Queiroz and wish to attend the Eça de Queiroz Foundation's Summer Seminar.

The Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento - FLAD aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Portugal through cooperation with the United States and financial assistance to projects and programs it creates and supports. FLAD is a private, financially independent Portuguese institution. Among other programs there is the “Research Grants in the USA - for internships of one or two semesters” which offers grants for research internships at American institutions with the duration of one academic semester (four months) or two academic semesters (eight to nine months) in the following areas:

  • Natural and Exact Sciences;
  • Engineering and Technologies;
  • Medical and Health Sciences;
  • Agricultural Sciences;
  • Social Sciences;
  • Humanities.

In a bid to strengthen the transatlantic academic and scientific community, FLAD launched an open call for applications for Research Grants aimed at funding internships at universities and research institutions in the USA.

The internships presented for evaluation should focus on innovative scientific or technological subjects, while also contributing to a greater alignment between Portuguese and American institutions in the hope of bolstering the knowledge network shared by the two countries and thus facilitating the creation of institutional partnerships.

Grant conditions:

Funding of up to EUR € 1.500 a month. Exact value of funding provided will be determined according to the cost estimates presented by the candidate and the average living costs of the region. 

Both individual and institutional applications are accepted, as long as they are in conformity to the requirements detailed below. In the case of individual applications, candidates should:

  • Have finished their undergraduate studies;
  • Have fluency in the English language;
  • Be Master/PhD students, or professors/researchers at Portuguese institutions of higher education and/or research centers;
  • Have proof of acceptance from the institution where the internship is to be held, including stated support for the project proposed and the period of stay this will entail;

  • Present two letters of reference from the Portuguese institution to which they are institutionally-bound, with stated support for the project to be developed within the framework of this internship;

  • Present a detailed budget of expected costs and the sources of funding applied for to finance this internship.

  • As for institutional applications – presented by higher education and/or research institutions, as well as non-governmental/non-profit organizations the name of the person or department/faculty/institute responsible, must be mentioned.