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Portugal:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Portugal

Contents

Portugal:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Portugal:Historical Development

Portugal:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Portugal:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Portugal:Political and Economic Situation

Portugal:Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Portugal:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Portugal:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Portugal:Organisation of Private Education

Portugal:National Qualifications Framework

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Portugal:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Funding in Education

Portugal:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Portugal:Higher Education Funding

Portugal:Adult Education and Training Funding

Portugal:Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Portugal:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Higher Education

Portugal:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Portugal:First Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Bachelor

Portugal:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Portugal:Second Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Portugal:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Portugal:Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Distribution of Responsibilities

Portugal:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Portugal:Main Providers

Portugal:Main Types of Provision

Portugal:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Portugal:Teachers and Education Staff

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Management and Other Education Staff

Portugal:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Portugal:Management Staff for Higher Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Quality Assurance

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Educational Support and Guidance

Portugal:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Portugal:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Portugal:Mobility and Internationalisation

Portugal:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Mobility in Higher Education

Portugal:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Portugal:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Portugal:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:National Reforms in School Education

Portugal:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Portugal:National Reforms in Higher Education

Portugal:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Portugal:European Perspective

Portugal:Legislation

Portugal:Institutions

Portugal:Glossary

The school leadership, administration and management bodies are:

  • The General Council;
  • The Pedagogic Council;
  • The Administrative Council;
  • The Director or School Head.

At any given moment, the member of Government responsible for Education can dismissed the administration and management bodies as a result of an evaluation by external auditors, or after an inspection revealing that the state-owned establishment has been jeopardised, or is in a clearly ruinous state, or where school management has been hindered.

The General Council is the strategic leadership body that is responsible for defining the guidelines for the school’s activities, ensuring that the educational community is allowed representation and participation together with the municipal authorities where the Municipal Council exercises its competences in education. As a rule, General Council members have a 4-year mandate.

The Pedagogic Council coordinates and supervises pedagogical matters and handles the school’s educational guidelines, mainly in the pedagogic-didactic domain, issuing guidelines and following-up students and pre-teacher training, and also checking up on the teaching staff and non-teaching-staff's continuous vocational training.  

The Administrative Council is a deliberative body in terms of the school’s administrative and financial matters. It is composed of a director (who presides over the Administrative Council), a deputy-director and two aids who are nominated by the director as well as by the head of the school’s administrative department or his/her replacement.

The Director or the School Head represents the school's administration and management in the pedagogical, cultural, administrative, financial and heritage domains, and it falls to the Director to represent the School / Group of Schools.

It is also the Director’s responsibility to submit for the General Council’s approval, the educational Project drawn up by the Pedagogic Council.

It falls to the Director after consulting with the Pedagogic Council, to: 

  • draw up and submit for the General Council’s approval, changes to the school’s rules, its annual and pluriannual activities plan, the annual report, and the proposals for drawing up independent contracts;

  • Approving the training plan and the plan to up-date teachers’ and non-teachers’ competences after hearing the Municipality in the last instance;

Furthermore, it falls to the Director to:

  • Draw up and submit for the General Council’s approval, changes to the school’s rules, its annual and pluriannual activities plan, the annual report, and the proposals for drawing up independent contracts;

  • Approving the training plan and the plan to up-date teachers’ and non-teachers’ competences after hearing the Municipality in the last instance;

  • Define the regime according to which the school is run;

  • Draw up the prospective budget in conformity with the guidelines laid down by the General Council;

  • Supervise the constitution of classes and draw up the timetables;

  • Hand out teachers’ and non-teachers’ work schedules;

  • Nominate school coordinators or coordinators in the pre-school establishment;

  • Propose candidates for the position of curriculum department coordinator, who is elected by the respective departments from a list of three teachers;

  • Nominate class directors;

  • Plan and oversee activity in the field of school welfare in conformity with the guidelines laid down by the General Council;

  • Manage the school’s facilities, spaces and equipment as well as other educational resources;

  • Establish Agreements and draw up cooperation or association agreements with other schools and training establishments, the local government and collective bodies, in conformity with the guidelines laid down by the General Council;

  • Direct and oversee the administrative, technical and technical-pedagogic departments;

  • Recruit and select teaching staff;

  • Exercise hierarchical power in relation to teachers and non-teachers;

  • Exercise disciplinary power in terms of the students;

  • Provide the conditions necessary for teacher performance assessment and for the evaluation of non-teaching staff performance.

It is also the Director’s duty to exercise competences that were delegated to him/her by the Ministry of Education and the Municipal Council.  

Requirements for Appointment

The Director or School Head is elected by the General Council.

Prior to the Director’s election, electoral tickets are organised in which there may be more than one candidate for the position. The candidates should be:

 - tenured teachers in public schools (i.e. permanent staff)
or
 - duly qualified, registered teachers with tenure in private schools and cooperatives.
In both cases, the candidates should have at least five years teaching experience and should have a qualification allowing him/her to exercise duties in school administration and management.

Teachers satisfying one of the following conditions are deemed fit to exercise administration and management duties (e.g. as the director/school head):

  • have attended and passed a specialised training course in School Administration or Educational Administration held in a duly registered Higher Education establishment;

  • have attended and passed a Master’s Degree or a PhD in School Administration or Educational Administration;

  • experience of at least one full mandate as the head of the school – as the director, a deputy director or an aid to the director, or in like positions;

  • at least three years experience as a director or as a pedagogic director in a private school or in a cooperative.

In order to undertake an appreciation of the candidates, the General Council should nominate a committee to draw up an evaluation report in which the following points are deemed obligatory: 

  • analysing each candidate’s curriculum vitae mainly to see the relevance of it in terms of exercising the duties as the head of the school - the director - and make an appreciation of its merit;

  • analysing the candidate’s project as applied to the school;

  • assessing the outcome of the interview held with the candidate.  

After having discussed and assessed the report and heard the candidates, the General Council will elect the Director, where the winning candidate is the one obtaining the absolute majority of votes cast by the fully effective members of the General Council.

The outcome of the election of the Director is then ratified by the Director-General for School Administration.

Conditions of Service

The Director or School Head is assisted in exercising his/her duties by a deputy director and by one to three aids, depending upon the size of the school / Group of schools, and the complexity and diversity of its educational services, mainly in terms of the levels and stages of education, and the kind of courses that are taught in it. The Director is replaced by the deputy director in the event of absence and impediments.

The deputy-director and the aids are nominated by the Director from among teachers with tenure in state schools and who have had at least five years teaching experience and are still pursing their duties at the school in question.

In order to support the Director’s activity and based on a proposal put forward by the Director, the General Council may authorise the appointment of technical and pedagogic assessors in terms of the school’s population and the kind of system the schools works in. The assessors are nominated from among teachers working at the school.

The Director pursues his/her activities on a full-time exclusive basis which means that the leadership position is incompatible with exercising any other duties whether public or private, remunerated or not, except in particular circumstances foreseen in the law.

The Director is exempt from classroom teaching although, without causing jeopardy, upon his/her own initiative, he/she may teach a subject or a curricular area for which he/she is duly qualified.

The Director, the deputy-director and the aids have the right to receive their basic salary corresponding to their original categories. They also receive a supplementary payment in lieu of the positions they occupy in the leadership (whereby they are paid monthly in each of the 12 months of the year). The value of this payment is set according to the school population and the duties they carry out.

The Director is exempt from the timetable although due to this factor, no extra remuneration is paid for working above and beyond the normal working day. Having said this, it is necessary to provide a full day’s work and be punctual.

The Director exercises his/her duties according to the system of commissioned service. As such, his/her original work place is safeguarded (as well as the social welfare system that is in effect), and his/her career may not be jeopardised due to fulfilling these leadership duties. This means, preserving for all effects and purposes, the original work place and length of service while serving his/her commission.

The Director’s mandate last four years; the mandates for the deputy-director and the aids also last 4 years.

The General Council has the power to deliberate upon the possibility of renewing the Director’s mandate for a further term or opening a new contest with a view to holding new elections. The decision to renew the Director’s mandate is made upon the absolute majority vote of the fully effective members of the General Council. The Director’s mandate will not be renewed for a third consecutive term in office. The same Director may not be elected for a fifth consecutive term in office or during the following four years upon the termination of his/her fourth consecutive mandate.

The Director’s term in office will cease:

  • At the request of the Director him/herself for reasons of good cause;

  • At the end of the school year upon the deliberation of the General Council and approved by a majority vote of two thirds of the fully effective members of the Council in the event that the Director has been found incompetent as regards his/her management. Proof of such incompetence needs to be provided and a duly proven allegation presented by any one member of the General Council;

  • Following a disciplinary process that has been concluded on the basis of applying disciplinary sanctions terminating the commissioned service.

In the event that the Director’s mandate has terminated, a new election will be held.

The mandates exercised by the deputy-director and the aids will terminate as soon as the Director’s mandate finishes. The deputy director and the aids may be exonerated at any moment pending the Director’s verifiable decision.

In the event that the teachers occupying or having occupied the positions of Director, deputy-director and the aids wish to retire, their original prior teaching positions will count for the purpose.

The Director (as well as the deputy-director and the aids) enjoy the right to receive specific training suited to their duties.

Other Educational Staff of Staff Working with Schools 

The legal framework that rules over public employees’ careers in Public Administration in Portugal has been significantly changed due to the application of Law No. 12-A/2008 of 27 February that defines and regulates matters based on binding civil service contracts, careers and public employee salaries. It is complemented by Law No. 59/2008 of 11 September that stipulates the Labour Contracting System for Public Employees.

Owing to the fact that they are a part of the Public Administration, non-teaching employees in schools / Groups of schools are also covered by the above-mentioned laws. Law No. 184/2004 of 29 July is not fully applied currently. It establishes the specific career rules of non-teacher state employees in public pre-school establishments and in compulsory and secondary education.

In accordance with the above-mentioned laws (Law. No. 184/2004):

Article 2

Non teaching staff

1-Non-teaching staff includes all employees and agents who, within the performance of their duties, contribute to support the organization and management, as well as the socio-educational activity of schools, including specialized services of socio-educational support. 

2-Non-teaching staff are part of  the technical-professional, administrative, educational support  and assistant staff. 

3-Non-teaching staff also include staff performing duties in special education and in socio-educational support, including those in psychology and social services careers, integrated in psychology and guidance services, that are regulated by autonomous law, but submitted to the specific rights and duties specified in this diploma.

Some non-teaching employees do not come under the Ministry of Education but rather the Local Municipal Councils in conformity with No. 1, Article 4 in Law No, 1144/2008 of 28 July.

For this to happen, contracts are drawn between the Ministry of Education and the Local Municipal Councils in agreement with Article 12 in the same Law.

In 1998, within the sphere of the FOCO Programme (Continuous Training of Teachers and of the Leadership in Educational Administration), training was stipulated for non-teachers who were working in schools and educational facilities in terms of the following domains: pedagogic relations and human relations; organisational development; school management and administration; specific areas of professional activity; communication and information technologies.

Law 184/2004 of 29 July set down the legal framework covering non-teaching personnel in state schools and establishments that did not belong to higher education. One of the chapters in this law was dedicated to vocational training as a structuring element in forming quality schools where all the employees working in education played a relevant role. Within this context, the growing organisation of the school and its ever-increasing link with the educational community generated additional complexities regarding the duties non-teaching personnel had to perform. It thus became necessary to regulate on and develop systematic vocational training in the different fields so that it would encourage employees to offer a higher standard of quality service.