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Portugal:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

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Overview Portugal

Contents

Portugal:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Portugal:Historical Development

Portugal:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Portugal:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Portugal:Political and Economic Situation

Portugal:Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Portugal:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Portugal:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Portugal:Organisation of Private Education

Portugal:National Qualifications Framework

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Portugal:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Funding in Education

Portugal:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Portugal:Higher Education Funding

Portugal:Adult Education and Training Funding

Portugal:Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Portugal:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Higher Education

Portugal:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Portugal:First Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Bachelor

Portugal:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Portugal:Second Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Portugal:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Portugal:Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Distribution of Responsibilities

Portugal:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Portugal:Main Providers

Portugal:Main Types of Provision

Portugal:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Portugal:Teachers and Education Staff

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Management and Other Education Staff

Portugal:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Portugal:Management Staff for Higher Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Quality Assurance

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Educational Support and Guidance

Portugal:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Portugal:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Portugal:Mobility and Internationalisation

Portugal:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Mobility in Higher Education

Portugal:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Portugal:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Portugal:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:National Reforms in School Education

Portugal:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Portugal:National Reforms in Higher Education

Portugal:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Portugal:European Perspective

Portugal:Legislation

Portugal:Institutions

Portugal:Glossary

Funding

Pre-school Education

The public funds allocated to Pre-School Education are the joint responsibility of the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Labour, Solidarity and Social Security, and Local Authorities. The Public Pre-School Education Network is totally paid by the State.

The Public Welfare Network, which includes Private Social-Welfare / Solidarity Institutions, Charities and Mutual Societies, are supported by the Government funds to pay the expenditure accrued in education, improving the teaching quality of the services supplied.

The Private Network includes the private and cooperative schools, and funding is based on the family’s monthly instalments. In conformity with their level of income, families may receive subsidies.

 

Basic and Secondary Education

An individual budget is allocated to each public school. The budget is calculated assessing the School’s proposal and the outcomes calculated by the Ministry of Education's Institute for Financial Management of Education (Instituto de Gestão Financeira da Educação – IGeFE).

This is done on the basis of criteria which include the number of students, the number of classes and the school’s specific features (the students’ social and economic bracket, the climatic conditions of the school’s locality, the kind of teaching carried out, the type and size of the school, and the quality of the construction).

The schools in Basic and Secondary Education are funded by assignments made in the Government's Budget allocation of the Ministry of Education, by European Community Funding and by the Schools’ own incomes.

The running costs are covered via resource allocation mechanisms and differ according to the education level.

 

Financial Autonomy and Control

Public schools’ self-governance allows them decision-making power in strategic, pedagogical, administrative, financial and organisational domains within the framework of their educational mission.

However, public schools do not enjoy financial autonomy; a system of financial control characterised by managing and handling the budget is conferred to the schools by allocating to them the total sum of funds so that the schools supervise and manage the incomes consigned to them.

The autonomy contracts are celebrated by the school and the central administration in view of the decentralization of competences.

There are also the execution and inter-administrative contracts, a pilot-project, that are celebrated by the central administration and the municipalities in view of the decentralization of powers.

The levels of competence and responsibility attributed at each stage of the autonomy process are object of prior bargaining between the school, the Ministry of Education, the Municipal Council and other interested parties. In the discussions, aims are defined and conditions are settled upon that envisage the feasibility of the educational project presented by the school or school cluster leadership.

The work involved in the autonomy-building process though the establishment of contracts is coordinated, followed-up and evaluated on a nationwide and regional scale, by the Ministry of Education’s competent authorities.

Private schools which fall under the tutelage of the Ministry of Education as regards their pedagogic contents, enjoy the same kind of status as applied to private companies and administrations.

The construction and maintenance of the 1st cycle of Basic Education and Pre-school Education buildings is the competence of local administration.

The investment on 2nd and 3rd cycles of Basic Education buildings is essentially the competence of central administration, but this competence is being transferred gradually to the municipalities, through execution and inter-administrative contracts that are being celebrated with each municipality.

 

Fees within Public Education

Compulsory public education is free, no enrolment fees are due and no payment is necessary for activities related to attendance and certificated awards.

 

Financial Support for Learners' Families

According to specific criteria based on the income of the families:

  • The families who are  financially disadvantaged, can receive a monthly subsidy that varies according to the family’s income and number of children;
  • these families can be exempt of income tax on the expenses they accrue in education and training, and can receive financial rebates;
  • school transportation, meals, textbooks and learning material can be subsidised for disadvantaged families. This social support is extendable to Secondary Education, but only for students with special education needs.


Financial Support for Families of Students with Special Education Needs

The students with special education needs benefit of different types of support:

  • Specific school material adapted to their needs;
  • extra pedagogic aid at no additional cost;
  • public funding of private education;
  • specific tax benefits.

The Ministry of Education's budget makes provisions for allocating funds to Special Education:

  • To support students through private special education institutions, associations, cooperatives and Private Institutions of Social Solidarity;
  • to support special education/resource centres for special education;
  • to support special education taught by Basic and Secondary Education teachers, in:
    • Cooperatives for Education and Rehabilitation of Misfit Children;
    • Portuguese Association of Parents and Friends of Mentally Diminished Children;
    • Private Institutions of Social Solidarity;
    • Early Intervention.

The families of students with special education needs benefit of specific tax benefits and exemptions.

 

Financial Support for Learners

Students may benefit from State funding by resorting to social services schemes for:

  • Books;
  • food;
  • transportation;
  • insurance;
  • accommodation;
  • merit based scholarships/grants in Secondary Education.

 

Private Education

Exclusively private educational institutions

Basic and Secondary Education private schools can benefit from public funding through the celebration of subvention contracts that correspond to different perspectives. The subvention criteria is always the student and not the school, so it can happen that the totality or only a part of the students are subsidised.

 

State funded Private institutions

The following modalities of private education funding are foreseen:

  • Simple contracts to support the families, creating conditions for attendance of private education schools for students of Basic and Secondary Education not contemplated in other contracts;
  • Development contract to support the families, aimed at the promotion of Pre-school Education and supporting the families through financial support;
  • Association contracts, which allow that private schools can complement the public network of Basic and Secondary Education schools, through Association Contracts that last one civil/school year. The costs are 100% funded by the public sector, based on the per class cost in the public network for the same education level;
  • Sponsorship contracts, aimed at stimulating and supporting education in domains that are not covered or are insufficiently covered by the public network, namely artistic education courses, courses with their own syllabus and pedagogical improvement;
  • Cooperation contracts, celebrated with the private schools that are dedicated to the schooling of students with special educational needs due to serious or total shortcomings, which require responses that are not offered in regular schools.