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Portugal:Bachelor

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Overview Portugal

Contents

Portugal:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Portugal:Historical Development

Portugal:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Portugal:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Portugal:Political and Economic Situation

Portugal:Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Portugal:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Portugal:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Portugal:Organisation of Private Education

Portugal:National Qualifications Framework

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Portugal:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Portugal:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Portugal:Funding in Education

Portugal:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Portugal:Higher Education Funding

Portugal:Adult Education and Training Funding

Portugal:Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Portugal:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Portugal:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Portugal:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Portugal:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Portugal:Higher Education

Portugal:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Portugal:First Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Bachelor

Portugal:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Portugal:Second Cycle Programmes

Portugal:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Portugal:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Portugal:Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Distribution of Responsibilities

Portugal:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Portugal:Main Providers

Portugal:Main Types of Provision

Portugal:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Portugal:Teachers and Education Staff

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Management and Other Education Staff

Portugal:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Portugal:Management Staff for Higher Education

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Portugal:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Quality Assurance

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Portugal:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Educational Support and Guidance

Portugal:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Portugal:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Portugal:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Portugal:Mobility and Internationalisation

Portugal:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Mobility in Higher Education

Portugal:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Portugal:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Portugal:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Portugal:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Portugal:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Portugal:National Reforms in School Education

Portugal:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Portugal:National Reforms in Higher Education

Portugal:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Portugal:European Perspective

Portugal:Legislation

Portugal:Institutions

Portugal:Glossary

Branches of Study

The Licenciado degree is awarded at Universities and Polytechnics and corresponds to level 6 of the National Qualifications Framework and the European Qualifications Framework.

In University Education, the study cycle leading to a Licenciado degree boasts 180 to 240 credits and normally lasts between six and eight semesters. When establishing the number of credits, similar figures should be used to benchmark institutions of this type of education in Europe in the same scientific areas.

In University Education, the scientific areas boasting more Licenciado degrees are social sciences, business and law, arts and humanities and the sciences, mathematics and computer science, while polytechnics tend to offer studies in the areas health and social work, followed by social sciences, as well as engineering, manufacturing and construction.

In Polytechnic Education, this cycle of studies has 180 credits and normally lasts six semesters or, exceptionally, when it is mandatory to grant access to a specific professional activity, 240 credits and a time span of up to seven or eight semesters.

In Polytechnic Education the study cycle that leads to a Licenciado degree should value essentialy the training aimed at the practice of a professional activity.

 

Admission Requirements

Via the general entry system, admission to the licenciado degree study cycle, the Licenciatura, requires that candidates satisfy the following conditions:

  • Having passed a secondary education course or legally equivalent domestic or foreign qualification;
  • having passed the entrance exams required for the course with a grade equal or higher than the established minimum (generally, these exams can be substituted for foreign secondary education exams);
  • satisfying the pre-requisites for the course applied for (only applicable in certain study areas, such as the arts or health).

In addition to the general access system, there are also special application systems for candidates with specific characteristics that allow new sections of the population to access Higher Education, thus extending the rationale of lifelong learning to such institutions:

  • Adults over 23 years old who have passed exams attesting to their capacity to attend higher;
  • holders of a higher professional diploma;
  • holders of a technological specialisation course diploma.

The number of places for each course is established annually by Higher Education institution.

Applications for state Higher Education via the general access system occurs annually via a national scheme organized by the Directorate General of Higher Education.

Applications for private Higher Education via the general access system occur via an institutional scheme organized by each Higher Education institution.

The application procedure to Higher Education (selection criteria, evaluation capacity for the frequency, and ranking of applicants to Higher Education) is monitored by the National Commission on Access to Higher Education (CNAES).

For the pursuit of studies that lead to an academic degree, within the established legal limits, HEI, according to the procedures established by its bodies, credit:

  • The training given in cycles of Higher Education or non-degree courses in domestic or foreign Higher Education institutions;
  • the training given as part of technological specialisation courses;
  • stand-alone courses;
  • duly verified professional experience and other training.

Within the yearly process of setting the number of available places for new students in Higher Education (1st cycles), specific guidelines have been rendered in order to achieve the above mentioned objectives, namely the limitations of places in HEI.

In particular, constrain the number of available places in 1st cycle courses for which demand has been extremely reduced in the previous 2 years and which have been shown to lead to limited employment opportunities.

Specific criteria and objectives will continue to be set for the funding of Higher Education, which will impact the drawing up of curricula and the development of innovative content. These will lead to a shorter gap between what graduates can offer and the demands and needs of the country, in turn leading to better levels of employability.


Curriculum

HEI have the scientific and pedagogical autonomy to create their own study cycles, draft the respective curricula and define the purpose of courses.

For the study cycle leading to a Licenciado degree in basic education, the training components are legally established, as are the objectives and the relative weight of each.

The study cycles leading to a Licenciado degree in the areas of nursing and health technology are also bound to a particular structure and legally established content.

The education taught, including its scientific level, is one of the parameters of the quality assessment process of the study cycles applied by the Higher Education Assessment and Accreditation Agency.

HEI can use of foreign languages, partially or wholly, in the teaching of their study cycles.


Teaching Methods

HEI, as part of their pedagogical autonomy, are competent to determine the teaching methods used in the cycle of studies that leads to the degree of Licenciado.

With the implementation of the legal regime pursuant to the Bologna Process there has been a transition from an education system based on the transmission of knowledge, to a system based on the development of student competences, where the experimental components or project work, among others, and the acquisition of multi-purpose competences, play decisive roles.

The number of students’ working hours includes various forms of work such as contact hours and hours dedicated to internships, projects, field work, studies and evaluations. Contact hours include the time used in collective training sessions, namely in classrooms, laboratories or field work, and in private tutorial sessions.

Since the implementation of ECTS credit system, there have been several changes, such as:

  • The workload of the students in this system is the time required to complete all planned learning activities such as lectures, seminars, individual study, preparation of projects, examinations, etc.;
  • the teacher’s role goes beyond the physical space of the classroom and starts to assume functions of guiding, supporting and supportive;
  • libraries, laboratories, etc., are considered excellent places for learning;
  • access to information – written, oral, internet, …– and the ability to select, organize and synthesize, assumes a great importance;
  • allows flexibility in the training pathways.

 

Progression of Students

Passing the year, the precedence and validity system in the study cycle that leads to a Licenciado degree are the responsibility of the relevant bodies of the HEI.

In public Higher Education, given that institution’s financing takes into account the academic success of its students, the right to enrol on public Higher Education courses is suspended for a period of time for those who do not fulfil certain requirements of school success.

HEI allow their students to enrol and attend their study cycles on a part-time basis and are responsible for regulations regarding conditions for enrolment, the fee system and the validity regime, which should result in proportional application of general rules.

 

Employability

Within the context of social responsibility, as stipulated in the legal framework governing their operation, HEIs should support their graduates’ entry into working life, collecting and disseminating information on the employment of its graduates, in addition to information on their career paths.

HEI use a variety of strategies to do this, often via the creation of career guidance offices, focussing primarily on the employment and entrepreneurship of young graduates, thus creating a network connected to the world of work.

Every year, HEIs draft and publish a report which details, amongst other aspects, the employability of their graduates.

The level of employability of the graduates is one of the parameters of the quality assessment process of the study cycles considered by the Higher Education Assessment and Accreditation Agency.

 

Student Assessment

The rules regarding the assessment system are approved by the HEIs’ competent bodies, as part of their pedagogic autonomy.

There are several types of student assessment, used in isolation or combined, for example: oral and/or written essays; examinations; tests; theses; reports on traineeships/ and/or fieldwork, ongoing assessment, with the possibility of quantitative or qualitative grades.

Assessment processes, as a parameter of quality assessment of study cycles, are presented to Higher Education Assessment and Accreditation Agency regarding accreditation.

 

Certification

The Licenciado degree is awarded to those that, after concluding all the curricular units that integrate the study programme of the Licenciatura course, have obtained the fixed number of credits.

The degree of Licenciado will have a final classification between 10 and 20 (pass) on a numerical scale of 0 to 20, as well as its equivalent in the European Scale of Comparability of Classifications.

The degree award is registered by the relevant body of the respective Higher Education institution, and the holder of the degree certified.

The award of the diploma is issued alongside a bilingual diploma supplement in Portuguese and English.