This page was last modified on 28 December 2016, at 16:08.

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Steering documents and types of activities

The Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 27 August 2012 (amended in 2014) on the core curricula for pre-school education in nursery schools and pre-school classes in primary schools and other pre-school education settings has introduced the current core curriculum for pre-school education. This document provides the basis for the development of curricula for pre-school institutions by teachers and other persons and for the organisation of classes for children.

The curriculum of a pre-school setting covers all activities undertaken by teachers to encourage children to interact with adults and peers. Thus it defines detailed aims, contents corresponding with the core curriculum, and methods to achieve the aims set, taking into consideration opportunities for individualised work to reflect children's needs and abilities, and methods used to assess the child's readiness for school education.

The conditions and procedures for approving pre-school curricula to be used in nursery schools, pre-school classes in primary schools and alternative pre-school education settings are laid down in the School Education Act. Nursery schools, pre-school classes and institutions offering pre-school education in other settings are obliged to follow a curriculum based on the core curriculum (podstawa programowa) and adjusted to the needs and abilities of the children concerned.

A curriculum developed independently by teachers or other persons and selected by teachers is approved for use in nursery schools or pre-school classes of a primary school by the head of the (nursery) school. In the case of other pre-school education settings, the curriculum is approved for use by the head of the nursery or primary school which employs teachers teaching classes in such alternative settings.

Pre-school education does not introduce subjects as these are understood in the school system. Education is considered globally and is based mainly on play activities for children.

One of the major tasks of pre-school institutions is to create suitable conditions for the child's individual development and preparation for school education. Pre-school pupils learn occasionally and spontaneously while playing. Pre-school teachers enable children to undertake various forms of activity, to develop their self-reliance and ability to cooperate and coexist in a group in safe conditions suited to their needs and abilities. Children participate in games designed to improve their speaking, visual and aural skills and to arouse their interest in reading.

As from 1 September 2015, compulsory and free-of-charge foreign language classes were introduced gradually for 5-year old children in preschool education. As from 1 September 2017, all children in preschool education will learn a foreign language. If a nursery school is prepared to do so (premises and a teacher holding the qualifications required), foreign language classes for other children may be introduced before 1 September 2017. Education and care activities organised for at least 5 hours a day are free of charge. A decision on the duration of free education and care (not shorter than 5 hours per day) is taken by the commune.

Starting on 1 September 2013 (based on the 2013 amendment of the School Education Act), the level of fees for pre-school activities charged by communes from children’s parents was limited to a maximum of 1 PLN for each additional hour of preschool education (on top of the 5-hour minimum which is free of charge). The commune may define conditions for full and partial fee waiver.

In order to make up for lower income from fees paid by parents, communes receive as of 1 September 2013 additional funding from the State budget in a form of a targeted grant.

Public nursery schools can organize various additional classes (e.g. rhythmic classes), but fees for such classes may not exceed 1 PLN per hour.

The head of the nursery school can delegate the organization of additional classes to:

  • a teacher employed in his/her institution who holds the relevant qualifications to offer such classes or
  • a newly employed teacher,

however, only within the limits of funding provided by the school managing body.

Teaching methods and materials

There are no official recommendations or guidelines with respect to teaching and learning methods. In general, the work with preschool children is based on their spontaneous activity. The pre-school environment stimulates and directs this activity, leading to learning and creativity. Games and activities stimulating development are the most common methods.

Some pre-school institutions follow or adapt methods based on certain methodological theories, e.g. Mary Montessori play groups. Some institutions combine various methods of working with children to enrich their own ideas. Mary Montessori’s theory had considerable impact on the pre-school education system in Poland between the two World Wars. After World War II, there was no room for alternative education. The revival of various theories in education can be seen at present.

Pre-school institutions seek to implement some theories (or their elements) well known across the world, such as R. Laban’s creative gymnastics, C. Freinet’s techniques, the Good Start method developed by Marta Bogdanowicz, L. Katz' s project method, Waldorf's concept of pre-school education, etc.

The contemporary Polish pre-school institution aims to build a model of education based on expression, geared towards developing children's positive self-image, building their inner world and developing their self-expression skills, which leads to self-management.