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Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Curriculum, subjects, number of hours

The scope of primary education is determined by two elements: the national core curriculum and outline timetables.

Starting from the school year 2014/2015, based on the Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 23 December 2008 on the core curricula for pre-school education and general education in individual types of schools (at present the Regulation of 27 August 2012, further amended on 30 May 2014), the Core Curriculum 2012 is binding in all grades of the six-year primary school.

The core curriculum has been defined in terms of general and detailed learning outcomes. It determines the scope of knowledge and skills to be tested by external examination bodies.

The core curriculum should be respected by each school, but teachers are free to follow curricula developed by them independently, or chosen curricula, provided they are approved for use by the school head, upon consultation with the teachers’ council.

The curriculum can be:

  • developed by the teacher individually or in cooperation with other teachers;
  • chosen from the set of curricula prepared by other author(s), e.g. from among those available on the market;
  • developed by other author(s) and modified by the teacher.

The curriculum proposed by the teacher should be adjusted to the needs and abilities of the pupils concerned.

School curricula are approved for the use at school by the head of a given school at the request of teacher(s), after consultation with the school's teaching council.

Stage I of the primary school covers grades I, II and III. Teaching at this stage is designed to ensure smooth transition from pre-school to school education. It is organised on an integrated basis.

Classes are taught according to a timetable prepared by the teacher, with the duration of lessons and breaks determined by pupils’ activity.

Curriculum reform started in the school year 2009/2010 has been implemented gradually. The process of implementation of the new core curriculum in grades I – VI of the primary school was completed in the school year 2014/2015. (Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 27 August 2012 on the core curricula for pre-school education and general education in individual types of schools, further amended by the Regulation of 30 May 2014,)

Starting from the school year 2012/2013 Outline Timetables are binding in primary schools (also gradually introduced) (Regulation by the Minister of National Education of 7 February 2012 on the outline timetables in public schools, further amended on 29 December 2014.)

OUTLINE TIMETABLES IN 2015/2016

1. In grades I - III of the primary school (Stage I – early school education) a minimum number of teaching hours in the 3-year period is as follows:

  • Integrated teaching (all compulsory teaching hours comprisingPolish language, Modern foreign language, Music education, Art education, Civics, Natural science, Mathematics, Computer classes, Technology and Physical education) – 1915 teaching hours. Educational activities are conducted according to a flexible timetable prepared by the generalist teacher.
  • If Modern foreign language, Music education, Art education, Computer classes or Physical education are taught by specialist teachers [possessing relevant qualifications as defined in the Regulation of the Minister of National Education on the detailed qualification requirements for teachers, and on schools and cases in which teachers without a higher education qualification or a diploma of a teacher training institution may be employed (further amended on 6 August 2014)] – the minimum number of teaching hours in the 3-year period is as follows:

RTENOTITLE
* Integrated teaching in model B includes only Polish language, Civics, Natural science, Mathematics and Technology – educational activities are conducted according to a flexible timetable prepared by the teacher.

2. In grades IV - VI of the primary school (Stage II) a minimum number of teaching hours in the 3-year period is as follows:

RTENOTITLE


3. Weekly number of teaching hours for:

1) compulsory classes for pupils in particular grades at Stage I:

  • grade 1 – 20,
  • grade 2 – 21,
  • grade 3 – 21,

2) compulsory classes for pupils in particular grades at Stage II:

  • grade 4 – 25,
  • grade 5 – 26,
  • grade 6 – 28.

4. Number of hours left to the school head’s discretion is defined by the school head for each school year, according to separate regulations.

5. Separate regulations define the number of teaching hours of Religion or Ethics, Education for family life, National or ethnic minority language, Regional language, Regional history and culture, and Sports activities in sports classes or sports schools, or schools of sports championship.

For more information see the annually updated Eurydice publication entitled Recommended Annual Instruction Time in Full-time Compulsory Education in Europe 2014/15

Teaching methods and materials

Teachers may choose forms and methods of teaching. Methods depend on the number of pupils per class and on the equipment available in the school (e.g. the number of computers, audio-visual equipment and other teaching aids). Schools are free to choose teaching aids to be used in classes. Some classes require the class to be divided into smaller groups (e.g. foreign languages, computer science). See also section “Age levels and grouping of pupils” above.

Teachers may choose a textbook from among the textbooks approved for the use at school by the Minister of National Education. The school head publishes the list of textbooks to be used in a given school in the coming school year by 15 June in the preceding school year. The costs of the purchase of textbooks are covered by pupils’ parents.

Schools are required to install special Internet safety software in computers used for teaching and learning purposes. The software should protect pupils, in particular, against pornography, brutal and aggressive contents, and contents breaking social norms and promoting hatred and discrimination.


Free textbooks for the youngest pupils

In September 2014 a pupil in grade 1 of primary school received a free textbook for Polish, maths, natural science and social education. The school also received a target subsidy for the purchase of exercise material and foreign language textbook. In the following years the schools will receive funds to cover costs of textbooks and exercise materials for older pupils.

In 2015 free textbooks will be made available to all pupils of grade one, two and four in the primary school, and grade one in the lower secondary school (gimnazjum). In 2016 free textbooks are planned to be offered to pupils of grades one, two, three, four and five in the primary school, and grades one and two in the gimnazjum.

It is planned that in 2017 all pupils of primary and lower secondary schools will receive textbooks free of charge.