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Poland:Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

2013

“Business for Education”

Initiative: project

Status: under implementation

A systemic project called “Business for Education” has been launched which aims at promoting practical cooperation between entrepreneurs and HEIs, vocational schools and the educational institutions that train potential employees. In the years 2013 and 2014, in the framework of this project, a campaign promoting a long-term human resource management in enterprises will be implemented. The implementation of 11 Educational Programmes will be “Business for Education” key activity. The chosen enterprises will be not only provided with the technical/specialist and organizational support concerning the coordination of their cooperation with a particular educational establishment, but also will be advised on formulating the basis of the Educational Programme. The Programme envisages establishment of a special kind of partnership between an enterprise and the chosen educational institution, which will improve students’ knowledge, skills, and competences as well as prepare them for the labour market needs. The implementation of the Educational Programmes will also improve young employees’ social competences required in their future career.


Pilot project: Your career – your choice

Reform status: completed

Since July 2012 until the end of 2013 a project entitled “Your career – your choice” is being implemented by several labour offices around the country. The aim of the project is to design and test some new labour market instruments addressed to unemployed persons under 30 years of age.

A young person who is out-of-work is offered an advisor. The advisor helps him/her outline an agenda of activities, based on a personal action plan, that will ensure easier access to the labour market. On a basis of such an agenda, a young person receives support from the labour office. The support can take the form of a coupon (voucher) for either on-the-job training, a vocational course, training in a vocational school or a post-graduate study course. The coupon encourages the young person to be active as it gives him/her the possibility to choose the type of training they wish to undertake and the institution which offers such training. The coupon guarantees that the selected form of training will be financed by the labour office.

These measures are meant to improve the effectiveness of training because the participants of the pilot project make their own decisions about the type of training and the training institution they choose. Once they have been tested in the pilot phase, the solutions will be included in the regulations.

There are also other measures aimed at the improvement of the quality of training for the unemployed. These are e.g. extension of the data resources of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy containing standards for competences required by employers. To the existing database with over 250 standards, another 300 profession standards (with competences required in these professions) will be added so that they can be used as a reference information for the labour offices. This data will be especially useful when designing training and will help to make the training match the actual needs of employers.


Forecast of labour market-oriented skills

Reform status: planned

Actions carried out under the act on employment promotion and labour market institutions (with further amendments), adopted in April 2004, are continued in order to forecast labour market-oriented skills. According to the act, labour market analysis, including deficit and surplus professions monitoring (DSPM), is the responsibility of regional and district administrative authorities. This type of monitoring is carried out at national, regional and district level. At the moment, the current schedule includes a total methodology evaluation, recognition of available data resources, as well as new sources and methods of classifying deficit and surplus workers according to their profession, qualifications and skills. Once new methodology is developed, the information system will be updated so that it helps the officers in regional and district labour offices carry out monitoring with the use of relevant databases and reporting systems. It is planned that officers responsible for labour market analysis are trained in the application of the new monitoring methodology.


European Reference Tools

Reform status: introduced, under implementation

The establishment of a clear and coherent national qualifications framework is one of the five major objectives described in the document 'The Lifelong Learning Perspective'. The document identifies the following directions:

  • outlining and implementation of a new instrument for the arrangement of qualifications from different sectors and comparing them with qualifications in other EU countries (the National Qualifications Framework) in line with the rules for the European Qualifications Framework;
  • profiling content of education and training at all levels to match the requirements of economy and society, which includes development of cooperation with social partners and organizations in identification of the requirements and development of profession-related information/ resources for the sake of the process of designing/creating the curricular content of vocational education and training;
  • introducing procedures for evaluation and confirmation of achievements of learners in line with the outcomes-based approach i.e. regardless of where, how, how long was the learning process (applying open approach to awarding qualifications), adjusting exam procedures at all levels of education and training to the evaluation of qualifications regardless of the conditions of the learning process and creation of a system of validation/ confirmation of qualifications acquired outside the formal education system, inclusion of social partner representatives into the process of monitoring whether the examination systems conform to the learning outcomes-based approach;
  • introducing standards for the description of qualifications (as learning outcomes) in the national qualifications system, primarily the creation of the national register of qualifications;
  • ensuring the quality of qualifications in relation to the civic, social and economic needs, implementation of principles for quality assurance in line with the European Qualifications Framework and Copenhagen and Bologna Processes;
  • implementation of changes that will make it possible for students/learners to accumulate and transfer their achievements in vocational education and training in line with the ECVET system;
  • raising awareness of educational institutions, labour market and vocational guidance institutions about the Polish Qualification Framework and the learning outcomes-based approach.

In 2013 a reference report relating the levels identified in the Polish Qualifications Framework to the European Qualifications Framework was developed and sent to the European Commission. The work on the National Register of Qualifications is in progress. These measures lead to the development of the final content-related and institutional framework which is necessary to implement the PQF.


Learning Mobility

Reform status: under implementation

Shaping trends in mobility and lifelong learning is related, among other things, to the challenges resulting from demographic processes and the steadily decreasing number of pupils/students. Thus, the proposed changes in education are designed to organise it in a way which will make it possible to cope with these challenges, while ensuring improvement in its quality. The idea of making lifelong learning and mobility a reality is integrated into the strategy 'The Lifelong Learning Perspective'. The measures taken in the area of lifelong learning are in line with the aims of the Europe 2020 strategy and European cooperation in education and training ET 2020.

The issues of lifelong learning, including the need to improve quality and increase the volume of training as well as the promotion of continuing education, are covered by various activities in EU programmes, including the Human Capital Operational Programme. The programme aims to: link education with the labour market, adapt labour resources to the evolving situation on the labour market, and reduce areas with the social exclusion problem. All activities covered by Priority 3 “High quality of the school education system” (e.g. Priority 3.4 “Openness of the education system in the context of lifelong learning") are worth highlighting. Another fact worth mentioning is that regional funds are used effectively, which contributes towards equal educational opportunities for people living in rural and urban areas. Continuing education is included in ”The Programme for the Development of Education in Rural Areas, 2008 – 2013” developed in 2008 in the Ministry of National Education. The operational objectives of the programme are, for example, to extend the range of learning opportunities for adults and to support continuing education (lifelong learning); to increase access to education for disabled people in rural areas; to encourage rural communities to undertake educational, social and cultural activities.

The coming years will see the implementation of EU-funded programmes which are designed to support mobility in lifelong learning. The tasks for the following years include:

  • developing sectoral programmes which enable the acquisition and upgrading of vocational/professional qualifications necessary on the labour market;
  • establishing networks and providing additional equipment to generally accessible places which can be used for distance-learning, including e-learning;
  • offering on a wide scale programmes for adults which enable them to upgrade basic competences (e.g. foreign languages, ICT) and thus enhance their chances on the labour market;
  • creating mechanisms and instruments which define the contribution from the State, local government authorities and social partners towards providing conditions for the development of continuing education.


Supporting students in their access to the labour market

Reform status: implemented

The Strategy for the Development of the Human Capital envisages, among others, promotion of combining of studies with work (practical placements, work experience), civic and local activity which has an additional educational dimension for students, not only in terms of experience of the labour market but also in terms of improving their practical skills. This will help to improve the HEI’s mission as a forum for civic involvement and learning, not only as the means of studying with a view to meeting the needs of the labour market. Academic career offices and academic entrepreneurship incubators should be also strengthened as institutions supporting students in their access to the labour market.


The Strategy for the Development of the Human Capital

Reform status: introduced, under implementation

The Strategy for the Development of the Human Capital, adopted by the government in June 2013, envisages the following measures:

  • Increase in the level of mobility (also international) of academic staff and students which leads to the improvement of quality of learning and will increase - via international exchange - the scope of experience offered during the studies, and in the case of the academic staff will allow for the establishment of networks of contacts necessary for implementation of scientific research. This requires continuation, evaluation, strengthening and creation of new programmes supporting mobility and establishment of relevant regulations in this respect. Programmes such as Top 500 Innovators or Mobility + implemented by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education can be quoted as relevant examples here.
  • Enhancing of links between HEIs and their socio-economic milieu which will allow for better adjustment of educational offer to the needs of the labour market, and will enable the flow of know-how and innovation between HEIs,the economy and civic society. HEIS should also in a greater extent than hitherto participate in the local communities, serving as a place for reflection on the community’s development as well as create environment for practicing civic attitudes.

Moreover, in the Strategy for the Development of Human Capital the following measures are envisaged:

  • Implementation of quality of teaching evaluation system and the system for tracking the professional careers of graduates. It will enable the candidates for higher education programmes to make better choices in terms of institutions and study areas, will help the HEIs in their competition to win more students and will strengthen the importance of social control of the quality of provision which will contribute to the formal evaluation provided by the state. These activities are to be supported by involving HEIs in efforts to improve the quality of information on their educational offer, e. g. through the HE information system POL-on and the new ranking tool U-Multirank.
  • Support to the functioning of quality assurance systems in HEIs which verify the attainment of expected learning outcomes at a given level and in a given area of study and which help to rationalize the teaching process (e.g. distribution of classes between staff, types of classes) in order to attain the defined goals. This will require a wide range of training activities directed to the dissemination of examples of best practice in terms of drafting study programmes and syllabi on the basis of learning outcomes and the strengthening of the Polish Accreditation Committee.
  • Improvement in the quality of part-time studies and adjusting their organizational forms to the needs of students who combine studies with work which will make this type of studies much more user-friendly and help to increase the number of students with special educational needs while avoiding the risk of stigmatization of these students.
  • Implementation of measures leading to the improvement of the quality of doctoral studies which will help to improve the quality of PhD theses and to the increase of proportion of completed doctorates in comparison with the number of doctoral students. Regulations concerning doctoral studies will serve the purpose of effective development of advanced research competences during doctoral studies, needed not only in research but also on the labour market. Public funds should serve the efficient training of future doctors and doctoral stipends should be directed to the students in such amounts that would enable the recipients to concentrate on the research without the necessity to undertake additional forms of employment not directly linked to the research in question.


The Lifelong Learning Perspective

Reform status: introduced, under implementation

The project “The Lifelong Learning Perspective” was prepared by the Interdepartamental Task Force for Lifelong Learning and the National Qualifications Framework led by the Minister of National Education (the group consists of representatives of the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, Ministry of Regional Development, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Chancellery of the Prime Minister) The Task Force was established by the Prime Minister on the 17 February 2010.

In September 2013 the project was accepted by the Council of Ministers. This coincided with the completion of 9 new integrated strategies prepared by the Government which have replaced the several tens of previous sectoral strategies. The PLLL with its status of an additional strategic document resulting from the EU obligations related to the creation of the European LLL Area, including the European Qualification Framework, was in its drafting stage correlated to the measures described in the new development strategies, and in particular with the strategies on human and social capital development, and on the development of innovative economy (there were also important links with new strategies on the regional and rural areas development). The PLLL will be implemented in the framework of the general mechanism for the implementation of the new integrated strategies.

The importance of transversal competences is visible in the document “LLL Perspective”. “Innovation and creativity” is the first operational goal. The following particular aims are envisaged for the implementation of this goal:

  • adjusting the content and methods of education and training to the promotion of creativity and innovation, including gradual introduction of individual programmes at all levels of education and training, with a particular attention given to individual choice of teaching content two years prior to the end of upper secondary education, and full implementation and continuation of reform of core curricula for general education aiming at the final abandoning of the teaching model based on memorizing and applications of schematic models in favour of the model promoting independent search for information, its critical processing, identification of problems and looking for individual strategies to find solutions.
  • introduction of new forms of teaching allowing for individual approach towards pupils and wider opening to non-formal and informal ways of learning including working with tutors, classes implemented in teams, distance learning including on-line forms, learning outside the classroom – in work place, NGOs, public institutions or local authorities,
  • planning of independent learning at school and outside school, classes implemented in big groups such as auditoria, or in internet groups;
  • preparation of teachers, academic teachers and trainers for the application of methods and forms of teaching which encourage creativity and innovation;
  • promotion and creation of creativity and innovation leaders in the area of LLL including economic entities and institutions of civic society.

In accordance with the underlying principles of the document 'The Lifelong Learning Perspective' the policy for lifelong learning „concerns facilitating access for citizens to high quality learning in various forms, settings and phases of life, and valuing the learning outcomes in coherent and transparent qualifications systems. This policy is implemented in cooperation between the government, local governments, social partners and civic organisations. It comprises learning in all settings, including formal, non-formal and informal, at all stages of life and at all levels of competences and qualifications. The extent of its effectiveness is directly related to the experience of citizens in terms of equal educational opportunities and the quality of learning”. The main aims of the policy include:

  • to facilitate mobility of learners and workers;
  • to facilitate the transfer of qualifications and their renewal;
  • to promote creativity and innovation;
  • to contribute to the economic growth and increase in employment.

The implementation of the strategy 'The Lifelong Learning Perspective' (referring to, and consistent with, the strategic framework for European cooperation in education) is reflected in the following activities:

  • developing contents to be learned as part of all forms of education and training through the definition of requirements for learners which are in line with the needs of the economy and civic society; contents are developed in cooperation with social partners;
  • applying procedures for the assessment and recognition of learners' achievements through the definition of learning/training outcomes, while following the approach to the award of qualifications which are acquired in different ways;
  • harmonizing descriptions of learning outcomes with the description of qualifications in the national qualifications system;
  • ensuring quality of qualifications (the possibility of accumulating and transferring credits; the implementation of the ECVET and ECTS systems; taking measures to ensure the coherence between ECVET and ECTS);
  • implementing a new system for the comparison of qualifications from various branches, sectors and EU countries.