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Poland:Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

2014

The Year of School for Professionals

Reform status: under implementation

The school year 2014/2015 was announced as The Year of School for Professionals by the Minister of National Education. The Ministry has planned several actions aimed at improving provision of vocational education in the current and in the following school years.

The programme’s goal is to improve the quality and effectiveness of the provision of vocational education. Among its priorities there are: adjustment of vocational education to the needs of the labour market as well as strengthening co-operation between schools and entrepreneurs and organization of practical work placements.

Additional information in Polish is available on The Ministry of National Education’s website.


Vocational training within Youth guarantee programme

Reform status: introduced, under implementation

In May 2014 an amendment to the Act on the Promotion of Employment and Labour Market Institutions, in line with the main aims of the Youth Guarantee programme promoted by the EU, came into force. Amended regulation oblige labour offices to offer help to young people under 25 years of age within 4 month since registration in the office (hitherto, they were obliged to do this within 6 months). The help offered to young people that is connected with education covers: (1) individually profiled job counselling; (2) access to professional training, vocational training programme, internships, subsidizing the cost of the exams or postgraduate studies, training loan, scholarship for continuing one’s education (3) participation in an individual programme, containing different forms of professional mobilization. Moreover, as a result of this amendment, unemployed young people are provided with a personal counsellor and professionally profiled types of assistance.

Additional information in Polish is available on the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy’s website.


Professional activation for 50+

Reform status: introduced, under implementation

In February 2014 a new Solidarity between generations - measures to enhance professional activity of people aged over 50 Programme was announced. The program defines measures helping to mobilize people aged 50+. Its general aim is to increase employment of people aged 55-64 years to 50% by 2020. The main actions in this programme aim at increasing the competences of people over 50 years (also over 45 years). Among them, there are: (1) supporting the development of educational offer for people aged over 45 years (2) creating environment for the constant cooperation between the employers and the educational institutions (3) creating of the information system on the educational offer for people over 45 years (4) supporting professional development of educational staff specialized in education of people aged over 45 years (5) promotion of formal and non-formal educational institutions as well as of cooperation between regional and central authorities, aiming at widening of educational opportunities for people over 45 years (6) creating measures promoting continuous education between employees over 45 years and between their employers (7) promotion of educational and professional counselling for people of every age, including also those over 45 years (8) supporting the institutions providing validation and certification of competences for people over 45 years.

Additional information in Polish is available on the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy’s website.


Social activation (including educational activation) for people over 60 years

Reform status: introduced, under implementation

In January 2014 a Government Programme for the Social Activity of Seniors for 2014-2020 (for people over 60 years) was announced. It is a multi-range programme aimed at supporting social activity of seniors. The activities funded under this programme are: (1) creation of offers corresponding to the needs of seniors in difficult situation (2) promotion of the new measures aimed at motivating seniors to take up education in order to stay active (3) increasing competences of personnel involved into activation of seniors.

Additional information in Polish is available on the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy’s website.


2013

Project of enhancing the accessibility of practical job placements and work-based learning and adjusting the system of education to the needs of the labour market

Reform status: completed

In the framework of the project “Vocational school – say yes to this choice” a model for cooperation of vocational schools/ institutions with employers has been worked out by 2013. The expected results of the project include practical training solutions in the cooperation with the employers.


2012-2014

Reform of VET and continuous education

Reform status: gradual implementation

Since 1September 2012 the Ministry of National Education has been introducing changes in order to modernize the system of vocational and continuing education (under a new act of 19 August 2011 amending the School Education Act and some other acts). The changes include:

  • modification of the classification of professions – individual qualifications were distinguished within each occupation, and occupations were grouped according to common or similar qualifications in 8 broad vocational areas; each occupation is described through 1 to 3 qualifications, and one qualification can be a component of several occupations.
  • Changes in the structure of the VET system: vocational schools can be merged into vocational and continuing education centres offering a more diverse range of programmes and courses and ensuring closer cooperation with the employers.
  • Curricular changes in vocational education: vocational qualifications were described as learning outcomes (in line with the European Qualifications Framework).
  • Vocational education at upper secondary level is linked to the general lower secondary (gimnazjum) core curriculum. This means that students continue to follow a general education curriculum in the first year of vocational upper secondary education. modernisation of vocational examinations –examinations confirming qualifications in a given profession are conducted for each qualification separately on the basis of the requirements laid out in the vocational curriculum; the introduced changes make it easier to gain complementary qualifications and acquire qualifications for the new occupations. Exams confirming single qualifications are held at different stages of education, not only at the end of education in a vocational school. more flexibility in the continuing education system – adults have the possibility to acquire or complete their vocational qualifications in non-school settings or in vocational qualification courses organized, among others, by vocational schools (which enables schools to respond quickly to the changing needs of the labour market and to adjust their educational offer to the needs of the employers). After vocational qualification courses learners may take exams confirming qualifications. Vocational schools for young people can organise vocational courses for adults.
  • enabling validation of qualifications acquired outside the formal education system – , exams confirming particular vocational qualifications can be taken not only by vocational schools students and graduates but also by adults who obtained professional experience outside the formal education system.

The vocational education reform stresses that practical vocational training and professional qualification examinations should be organised in close partnership with the employers. In order to assure that, a new core curriculum for vocational education has been designed, taking into account division of professions into qualifications defined by learning outcomes and separately validated in the process of learning, as well as determining a minimum number of teaching hours for practical training within vocational education. These improvements will allow young people to acquire profession-specific qualifications and to validate them through standardized vocational examinations which recognize learning outcomes achieved within formal, non-formal and informal education.

Apart from professional knowledge and skills, also personal and social competencies considered as crucial to operate successfully on the labour market will be developed. These include: decision-making consequences, positive attitude to change, dealing with stress, willingness to continue learning and develop professionally, reliability, teamwork.

Moreover, within the framework of the above-mentioned reform, vocational schools are able to react quickly to the changing needs of the labour market and to adjust their educational programmes to the employers’ needs by organizing vocational qualification courses leading to confirmation of qualifications in the system of external exams. That means that vocational school’s graduates will be able to obtain additional qualifications required by the employers in a more flexible way, i.e. within the system of continuous education.

The vocational education reform, effective as of 1 September 2012, grants that practical training in technical upper secondary and post-secondary schools should cover at least 50% of vocational training time, whereas in basic vocational schools it remains as it was so far (i.e. 60% of that time) and school heads are responsible for the implementation thereof. It is stressed that practical vocational training and professional qualification examinations should be held in close partnership with the employers, self-regulatory organizations and occupational associations.

Additional information in Polish is available on the Ministry of National Education’s website.