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Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Global and intercultural dimension in curriculum development

Curricular contents and the knowledge and skills which should be covered by curricula are laid down in the Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 27 August 2012 on the core curricula for pre-school education and general education in individual types of schools (as subsequently amended). The description below outlines key elements of the core curricula.

Pre-school education

The core curriculum states that the child completing pre-school education knows that Poland is a member of the European Union.

Since 2014/15, obligatory foreign language learning has been introduced as part of the core curriculum in pre-school education, starting with 5-year olds.

Primary education

Curricular contents and educational activities related to the European or international dimension of education are included at both stages of primary education. A foreign language is also taught at both stages.

Stage 1: Grades I to III (early school education)

At this stage of education, children learn about, among other things, everyday life of their peers in other countries. As laid down in the core curriculum, pupils at the end of grade I are aware of their nationality; know that they live in Poland and that Poland is situated in Europe; know national symbols (the national flag, emblem and anthem); and are able to recognise the flag and anthem of the European Union. Upon completion of grade III, pupils are tolerant towards other nationalities and cultural traditions, and know that all people have equal rights.

Stage 2: Grades IV to VI

As part of the subject ‘Polish Language’, pupils are introduced to the traditions of national and European culture by reading texts which illustrate the origins of European culture.

As part of the subject ‘History and Society’, pupils give presentations on Poland’s membership of the EU, using terms and concepts such as the European Union, European solidarity and international relations, and are able to recognise the EU symbols: the EU flag and anthem.

Lower secondary education (Stage 3)

A foreign language is taught at basic and advanced levels. The school should give much attention to the effectiveness of teaching in the areas of science in line with the priorities of the Lisbon Strategy. European issues are included in the core curriculum for the subject “Civic Education”.

Subject 'Civic Education'

  • Poland’s relations with other states: The pupil presents the main lines of Poland's foreign policy (relations with EU Member States, the United States and the neighbours); Poland’s defence policy; membership of NATO; participation in international peacekeeping missions and military operations; Poland's relations with a selected country on the basis of independently collected information; the responsibilities of embassies and consulates.
  • European integration: The pupil presents the aims and stages of European integration (Treaty of Rome, and Maastricht, Nice and Lisbon Treaties); explains the responsibilities of the main EU institutions (European Council, Council of the European Union, European Parliament, European Commission); explains how the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity are applied in the European Union; explains where funds in the EU budget come from and the purposes for which they are allocated; and shows EU Member States on the map and justifies his/her view on the further integration and enlargement of the EU.
  • Poland in the European Union: The pupil presents the rights and obligations stemming from the EU citizenship; gathers information on how EU funds are used by Polish citizens, enterprises and institutions; formulates and justifies his/her own opinion on the benefits of the EU membership, referring to examples from his/her own environment and the country as a whole.
  • International cooperation and conflicts: The pupil presents the responsibilities of the United Nations and its main bodies (General Assembly, Security Council, Secretary General) and selected international organisations; shows on the map the locations of major international conflicts; chooses one of them and discusses its development and efforts taken to resolve it.
  • Problems of the contemporary world: The pupil compares the situation in the countries of the global South and global North and explains their interdependence, using specific examples; justifies the need for humanitarian aid and engages (in so far as possible) in the activities of institutions (including NGOs) providing it; explains the meaning of globalisation in the spheres of culture, economy and politics, referring to specific examples; assesses its consequences; considers how his/her behaviour may affect the lives of others in the world (e.g. efficient use of energy and water, well-considered shopping); assesses the situation of immigrants and refugees in the contemporary world; explains what terrorism means and what attempts are made to combat it.


Upper secondary education (Stage 4)

General upper secondary school and technical upper secondary school

A foreign language is taught at basic and advanced levels. The school should devote much attention to the effectiveness of teaching in the areas of science in line with the priorities of the Lisbon Strategy.

The school subject 'Civic Education' (basic level / basic programme) covers a thematic block ‘Education and work in Poland and the European Union’, where the student learns, among other things, to:

  1. present the conditions for young Poles to take up study in the EU and find relevant information for a selected country;
  2. explain the consequences of Poland’s entry to the Schengen zone; the rules of safe travelling in Europe and the world (how to avoid risk; what should be done in the case of theft or accident; how to seek help, including medical assistance);
  3. discuss general rules for taking up employment and establishing businesses in the European Union (on the basis of information available in the Internet), and prepare a Europass CV.

Moreover, the thematic blocks ‘Human rights’ and ‘Protection of rights and freedoms’ cover topics such as key provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and activities and importance of the European Court of Justice.

The following topics are discussed as part of the subject 'Civic Education' (advanced level / extended programme):

  1. The global and European systems for the protection of human rights
  2. International relations at global level
  3. Globalisation of the contemporary world
  4. Systems of security and cooperation
  5. European integration
  6. Europe among the world powers
  7. Poland in the European Union.

Until recently, two national contests on the European Union ('The Knowledge about the European Union') were organised in Poland for students in post-primary schools: one held by the University of Szczecin and the KONTRA Association, and the other one by the Aleksander Gieysztor Academy of Humanities in Pułtusk. Following amendments to legislation, national contests on Poland and the contemporary world will be held in 2016/17, 2017/18 and 2018/19; winners and finalists will be exempt from the lower secondary school exam in History and Society / Civic Education and the upper secondary school exam in Civic Education. Regional contests are organised by regional European information centres, schools, NGOs, the regional education authorities and local authorities.

Partnerships and networks

EU Programmes

For nearly two decades the greatest opportunities for establishing international partnerships and networks have been offered to Polish nursery schools, schools and other school education institutions by EU programmes in the field of education and training. Socrates (Stage I: 1995-1999; Stage II: 2000-2006) was the first big programme, which Poland joined in 1998, followed by the Lifelong Learning Programme (2007-2013); currently, it is the Erasmus+ Programme (2014-2020).

At school education level, the Erasmus+ Programme offers grants for cooperation between nursery schools, schools and other school education providers as part of Strategic Partnerships in Action 2. Each project involves partners from at least three countries or at least two in the case of projects for schools only. Aside from nursery schools and schools, project partners may include various institutions and organisation, e.g. education authorities, education centres, career guidance institutions, NGOs and non-profit organisations, associations, foundations, social partners, cultural institutions and organisations, and enterprises. Strategic Partnerships are designed to develop innovative outputs and / or disseminate innovative ideas and approaches or establish and strengthen networks, develop the capacity of organisations for international cooperation and support exchange of ideas, practices and methods. They include activities such as the development, testing, adaptation and implementation of innovative practice or approaches (e.g. new curricula or teaching and learning tools), exchange of experience, and joint studies and analyses. The duration of projects is one to three years. Moreover, vocational and technical schools, as well as – like in Strategic Partnerships – other institutions and organisations may take part in Action 2 Sector Skills Alliances which aim to adapt education and training to evolving labour market needs. Sector Skills Alliances, lasting two or three years, focus on identifying skills needs or designing and providing vocational education and training. Project activities may include, for example, studies and analyses, and the development of joint curricular contents and teaching / training methods.

Since 2004 Poland has also participated in eTwinning which is the main action of the EU eLearning programme promoting the introduction of ICT in European education and training. It supports schools collaborating with partner schools in other European countries via electronic media. eTwinning covers various forms of cooperation such as the exchange of information and teaching or learning materials, online courses, seminars and workshops.

Foundation for the Development of the Education System which manages both programmes:


Other European initiatives

Poland joined the European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education in 2005. The organisation was founded in 1996 as an international forum for exchange of knowledge and experience in the field of education of pupils with special needs. At present, 27 European countries are its members.

Bilateral programmes / initiatives

The Ministry of National Education supports international cooperation in the area of education and youth with Germany through Polish German Youth Cooperation (PNWM) and Lithuania within the framework of Polish-Lithuanian Youth Exchange Fund (see Section 13.1.1), and Eastern Partnership countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Byelorussia, Georgia, Moldova, and the Ukraine) as well as with Russia and Israel in the framework of public tasks performed by the Ministry.