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Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Pupils participate in full-time compulsory education:

  • in a school within a given catchment area;
  • in another school (e.g. a non-public or public school chosen by the pupil and his/her parents);
  • outside of school (at home) upon the consent of the head of the school within a given catchment area;
  • through participation in rehabilitation or compensatory classes in a school (for pupils with moderate and severe mental disabilities);
  • through participation in rehabilitation or compensatory classes outside a school (for pupils with moderate and severe mental disabilities);
  • by following an individual programme in a rehabilitation and education centre (pupils with mental disabilities combined with other disabilities);
  • by attending a school at a Polish diplomatic mission abroad;
  • by attending a school abroad on the basis of bilateral agreements between the relevant local government units;
  • by attending a school at a diplomatic mission of another country in Poland;
  • by attending a school in a different country (depending on the country where the pupil attended school, the learning outcomes achieved are subject to recognition procedures laid down in Polish legislation).

Disabled and ill pupils who have difficult access to school or cannot take part in school classes at all may follow an individual learning path on the basis of a relevant certificate. Such a certificate allows them to take home-based classes or individual classes at a school or other institution . The weekly number of individual teaching hours in the primary school is:

  • 6 to 8 hours for grades I to III,
  • 8 to 10 hours for grades IV to VI.

Gifted pupils may be allowed to follow an individual study programme. They study a chosen subject or group of subjects under the supervision of the appointed school teacher or academic teacher. The school assessment system includes specific rules for the assessment of results achieved by such pupils and for presenting them on school certificates.

At their parents’ request, pupils can also follow full-time compulsory education outside of the primary school, e.g. at home where they are taught by their parents. This arrangement should be formally endorsed by an appropriate permission (granted by the head of the school in a given catchment area). In order to assess such non-formal learning outcomes, pupils are obliged to take qualifying examinations in the school in their catchment area, which enables them to complete the individual education stages and, ultimately, primary education .

Art Schools

Art schools in Poland enable children and youth with particular artistic abilities to undertake individualized training in different fields of art. In parallel to general education programmes, art education constitutes a separate system which is supervised by the minister responsible for culture and national heritage. Tasks related to the administration of some schools and the supervision of all art schools are carried out by the Department of Art Schools and Cultural Education in the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, and by the Art Education Centre. Pursuant to the legislation in force, such schools and educational institutions may also be administered by local government units and other entities, but the State, represented by the minister responsible for culture, is still the main managing body in this sector.

The system of art schools in Poland is composed of the following public and non-public schools and educational institutions:

  • art schools providing art education only;
  • art schools providing general education and art education (with the general education component based on the core curriculum and rules applied in schools of general education);
  • art centres enabling young people to develop artistic abilities and interests;
  • boarding schools offering art education and care for pupils studying outside their place of residence.

Art education can be continued in higher education institutions (specialised in higher art education).

In the system of art education in Poland, the following types of primary and secondary art schools provide in parallel general and art education:

  • 1st grade music schools providing general education (6 years): with general education subjects based on the core curriculum for the primary school;
  • 2nd grade music schools providing general education (6-years): with general education divided into the lower level (lower secondary education) and the upper level, leading to both a vocational diploma of a musician and a maturity (upper secondary school leaving) certificate upon passing the maturity exam;
  • schools of fine arts, including schools of fine arts providing general education (6-year schools corresponding to a lower- and upper-secondary school in terms of level), and art lyceums providing general education (4-year schools providing upper secondary education), leading to a qualification in the occupation of Visual Artist and a maturity (upper secondary school leaving) certificate;
  • ballet schools (9-years):offering general education at the level of grades IV-VI of the primary school and up to grade III of an upper-secondary general education school, and leading to a vocational diploma in the occupation of Dancer and a maturity (upper secondary school leaving) certificate.

There are also types of art schools which do not provide general education, focusing exclusively on art education. These include:

  • 1st grade music schools (4- or 6-year programmes, with no vocational qualifications at this level) and 2nd grade music schools (6 years);
  • ballet schools (9 years);
  • circus arts schools (3 years);
  • post-secondary schools of music (3 years) and fine arts (2 years);
  • post-secondary schools of librarianship and culture animation (2 years).

Art schools prepare for occupations in seven fields:

  • music,
  • fine arts,
  • dance,
  • music theatre acting,
  • circus performance,
  • culture animation,
  • librarianship.

A legal framework for art education at the primary and secondary education levels is provided by two acts: the School Education Act of 7 September 1991 and Act of 26 January 1982 - The Teachers’ Charter. Detailed arrangements are laid down on their basis in regulations of the ministers responsible for culture and national heritage and for school education.

The number of art schools and pupils in the school year 2014/2015

(1) 1st grade art schools:

  • providing general education and art education: 50 schools attended by 9.6 thousand pupils;
  • providing art education only: 495 schools attended by 38.6 thousand pupils.

(2) 2nd grade art schools:

  • providing general education and art education: 122 schools attended by 12.6 thousand pupils;
  • providing art education only: 163 schools attended by 9.6 thousand pupils.

Source: „Education in 2014/2015 School Year” (Oświata i wychowanie w rku szkolnym 2014/2015) (data in Polish and English), Central Statistical Office, Warsaw, 2015