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Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

ECEC for children aged up to 3 may be provided by a crèche or kids club or by a day-care provider or nanny. Each of these forms has its own specific features and responds to different needs of parents.

  • A crèche (żłobek) is the basic care setting for children up to 3 years of age. It provides care to children aged 20 weeks and above till the end of the school year in which the child reaches the age of 3. Care in a crèche includes 10 hours per day for each child (the duration can be extended in justified cases, at the parents’ request and upon an additional payment).

One child minder in a crèche may take care of a maximum of eight children, or a maximum of five children if the group includes a disabled child, a child requiring special care or a child who has not reached the age of 1.

Additionally, at least one nurse or a midwife is employed at a crèche attended by more than 20 children.

  • A kids club (klub dziecięcy) provides care to children from the age of 1 till the end of the school year when the child reaches the age of 3, or the age of 4 if it is difficult or not possible for the child to participate in preschool education.

Kids clubs provide care for a maximum of 5 hours per day for each child.

  • A day-care provider (opiekun dzienny) is a natural person who takes care of children aged 20 weeks and above until the end of the school year in which the child reaches the age of 3 (4 in exceptional cases) and is hired by a commune (gmina), legal entity or another institution on the basis of a service agreement. A day-care provider may take care of a maximum of five children, or a maximum of three children if the group includes a child who has not reached the age of 1, a disabled child or a child requiring special care.
  • A nanny (niania) provides individual care to children aged 20 weeks and above till the end of the school year in which the child reaches the age of 3. Nannies are hired by children’s parents on the basis of a civil law contract. This childcare option is available in the case of working parents (or a working lone parent) and for children aged up to 3 (up to 4 in exceptional cases).

Crèches and kids clubs can be administered by communes, natural persons, legal entities and other institutions. The commune establishes crèches and kids clubs as public sector units at the commune level or can delegate the responsibility for their administration to other institutions, selected through an open competition.

The post of head in crèches may be held by persons who have a higher education degree and at least 3-year experience of work with children or who have an upper secondary qualification and 5-year experience of work with children. For organisational reasons, the body administering crèches and kids clubs may integrate them into a cluster. The head of such a cluster is required to have prior experience of managing a crèche or kids club for at least one year.

A child minder in a crèche or kids club may only be either a person holding the qualification of a nurse, midwife, child minder, pre-school teacher, early school education teacher or care and upbringing specialist or a person holding an upper secondary qualification who has at least two-year experience in the work with children aged up to 3 years and has completed 280-hour training, including at least 80 hours of practical training (work with children).

Geographical accessibility

A low number of crèches in comparison with the demand is the main obstacle in access to services. The number of places in crèches is determined by local authorities as it is their task to establish and administer such institutions. Changes introduced in 2011 in care for children aged 3 and below are designed to provide conditions for the development of various forms of care and improve their quality. A dynamic growth of the number of childcare institutions has been noted recently. In 2014 there were 1 667 crèches in Poland, including  485 run by communes (gmina), 384 kids clubs, of which only 20 were run by communes, and 442 day-care providers employed in 67 communes (report of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy). These institutions operated in 574 communes, i.e. 23% of all communes in Poland, including 163 communes in rural areas (approx. 10% of all rural communes). In total, there were 71 386 places available in the above mentioned childcare institutions, including 65 081 in crèches.

At the end of 2014, approximately 8.3 thousand nannies were registered in the national health insurance system. The overwhelming majority were women (ca 8 thousand, i.e. 97%).

When comparing the data for the period 2010-2014, the Ministry states that the percentage of children aged 0-3 enrolled in childcare institutions was 2.6% in 2010, 4.5% in 2012, 5.7% in 2013, and it is estimated to reach 7.1% in 2014.

Some measures have been undertaken in order to further develop the provision of care for children aged 3 and below.

The Act of 10 May 2013 amending the Act on Care for Children up to 3 years of age and some other acts introduced the following changes:

  1. the level of costs borne by the commune while applying for the State budget subsidy was lowered from 50% to 20% of the costs incurred to provide care for children (to establish and manage childcare institutions);
  2. the list of entities entitled to apply for subsidy from the State budget was extended to include non-public entities, i.e. beside communes, also legal persons, organizations without legal entity and natural persons;
  3. the list of entities entitled to employ day-care providers was extended to include legal persons and organizations which are not a legal entity;
  4. a possibility was introduced for childcare institutions for children aged 3 and below to organize administrative, financial and management services jointly with schools and other education institutions;
  5. a possibility was introduced for persons who conduct economic activity in agriculture to employ nannies whose social and health insurance is covered from the State budget;
  6. a possibility was introduced for entities providing childcare to register a crèche or a kids club through the Internet;
  7. a legal basis was created enabling entities employing day-care providers to receive a targeted subsidy from the commune budget.

Admission requirements and choice of ECEC institution

An entity which has established a crèche or kids club adopts its statutes which define conditions for the admission of children. Parents are obliged to cover the costs of their children's stay and meals provided in a crèche (żłobek), kids club (klub dziecięcy) or by a day-care provider (opiekun dzienny). The amount of fees in crèches and kids clubs administered by communes (gmina) and fees for care provided by day-care providers, as well as the maximum amount to be charged for meals, is determined by the council of the commune. The council can adopt a resolution laying down conditions for full or partial fee waiver.

In the case of entities other than communes, administering a crèche or kids club is a regulated activity, as defined in the 2004 Act on Freedom of Economic Activity, and requires an entry on the register of crèches and kinds clubs kept by the commune. Only crèches and kinds clubs complying with the standards laid down in the Act on ECEC may be entered on the register.

Fees in crèches and kids clubs administered by entities other than local government units are determined by the managing bodies of these institutions.

The head of the relevant local government unit keeps a register of day-care providers with whom contracts have been concluded.

Age levels and grouping of children

The maximum number of children supervised by one person in crèches and kids clubs is 8. The number is reduced to 5 in cases where groups include a disabled child, a child requiring special care or a child under one year of age. Crèches with more than 20 children employ at least one nurse or midwife. Crèches and kids clubs may have volunteers supporting the provision of child care. Volunteers who do not have necessary qualifications are required to complete 40-hours training.

Organisation of time

The internal organization of a crèche or kids club is laid down in the organizational regulations adopted by the head of the institution. Heads are also responsible for ensuring compliance with the regulations. Crèches and kids clubs should have at least two rooms which provide healthy conditions for meals and rest taken by children.

Organisation of the day and week

Working hours in crèches and kids clubs are determined in their organisational regulations, taking into account parents' preferences. Crèches provide care for 10 hours per day. In special cases, at parents' request, the duration of the stay can be extended, but an additional fee is charged. Kids clubs offer care for 5 hours a day. In the case of day-care providers, the duration of care services is defined in an agreement concluded between the provider and the employing entity.