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Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Student mobility

Students participate in mobility primarily within the EU Erasmus+ Programme, but there are also multilateral and bilateral programmes and national programmes or initiatives. National initiatives are targeted at both Polish and international students.

EU Programmes

Opportunities for Polish students to undertake a study period in EC countries emerged in 1990, when the European Community launched the TEMPUS Programme for Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. In 1998, like other EU candidate countries, Poland joined the intra-Community Socrates Programme (Stage I: 1995-1999; Stage II: 2000-2006) where students could undertake a period of study within the framework of the Erasmus (sub-)programme. Between 2007 and 2013, Erasmus was part of the larger EU Lifelong Learning Programme.

The Erasmus+ Programme (2014-2020) offers several mobility opportunities to students. Within Action 1, Learning Mobility, first-, second- and third-cycle students may undertake a study period of 3 to 12 months or a practical placement of 2 to 12 months in an enterprise or another organisation abroad. These types of mobility take place within mobility projects, based on agreements between students’ home higher education institutions and higher education or other institutions / organisations abroad. Student mobility may also be part of two types of projects, Strategic Partnerships and Capacity Building in Higher Education, undertaken by higher education institutions within Action 2. In both cases, mobility is closely related to the objectives of a given project. Strategic Partnerships may include intensive programmes for students, with a duration of 5 days to 2 months (e.g. summer schools), and blended mobility, combining physical mobility (a short stay in another country) and virtual mobility (participation in virtual learning). Like in Action 1, in Capacity Building in Higher Education projects, students may undertake a period of study (3 to 12 months) or a practical placement (2 to 12 months) abroad.

http://erasmusplus.org.pl/szkolnictwo-wyzsze/

http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/erasmus-plus_en


Multilateral programmes

Central European Exchange Programme for University Studies, CEEPUS

CEEPUS is the first multilateral cooperation programme in the field of education in Central Europe, established on the basis of an international multilateral agreement. Poland has taken part in the programme since 1994. The other participating countries are: Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia, and Kosovo. The CEEPUS Programme supports mainly the establishment of inter-university networks where partners from at least three countries offer joint programmes and, in particular, doctoral programmes. Within this framework, the Programme offers scholarships to students and academic teachers based on the principle that each country is required to fund at least 100 scholarship months for inward mobility in each academic year. Scholarships are granted for short study visits, semester study periods and practical placements. Support is also provided for training seminars, language courses and specialist courses. http://buwiwm.edu.pl/ceepus/


International Visegrad Fund

The International Visegrad Fund was created in 2000 by the Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary (V4 countries). Each of the four countries provides an equal contribution to the Fund. Additionally, the Fund is supported by other governments or government organisations, including Canada, Germany, South Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. Currently, it aims to strengthen cooperation among the V4 countries and between the V4 Region and other countries, in particular in the Western Balkans and the Eastern Partnership Regions. The fund awards grants for various projects and individual scholarships. The latter include scholarships for Master’s degree studies and post-Master (PhD and post-doc) level research stays for a period 1 to 2 semesters or 1 to 4 semesters in the case of Masters studies. Scholarships are available to students from the V4 countries as well Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia and the Ukraine.


Bilateral programmes / initiatives

Bilateral agreements

Poland has signed bilateral agreements covering scholarship-based exchanges and / or recognition of qualifications with 35 countries, mainly EU Member States, and Armenia, Kazakhstan and the Ukraine, Macedonia, Turkey, China, Mongolia, Japan and Vietnam, Israel and Egypt. As part of some of the agreements, the government of Poland and / or the partner country offer(s) a number of scholarships to academic staff and students. Types and conditions of mobility depend on the arrangements agreed with individual countries.

A full list of agreements is available on the website of the Bureau for Academic Recognition and International Exchange


Scholarship programmes


Fellowship Fund

The Fellowship Fund was established in 2009 within the framework of the Sciex-NMSch Scientific Exchange Programme between Switzerland and the new EU Member States for the years 2009-2016. It aims to contribute towards reducing economic and social disparities within the enlarged EU through the development of the capacities of Polish academic staff and the promotion of sustainable partnerships between a new Member State and Switzerland in the area of research. Fellowship Fund projects are designed mainly to establish research partnerships which will develop the capacities of individual researchers and help to establish or strengthen links between researchers. The total budget allocated by Switzerland for the Polish Fellowship Fund is 12 million CHF. The programme covers the period between 1 April 2009 and 31 December 2016. A Swiss institution, CRUS (Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities), is responsible for the implementation of the programme in Poland.

The following types of projects are supported by the Fund:

  • fellowship visits undertaken by doctoral students and young researchers (with a PhD) to conduct research in Swiss research institutions; fellowships are awarded for a period of 6 to 24 months;
  • visits undertaken by senior Polish or Swiss researchers to develop research projects or in connection with their implementation: 5-day stays in Switzerland or Poland.

The Fellowship Fund is open to researchers in all academic disciplines.


Fullbright Programme

As part of the Fullbright Programme, the Polish-US Fullbright Commission offers scholarships for studies and research stays funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and the US State Department. Scholarships are awarded to, among others, graduates of Polish higher education institutions who plan to take up, or have been enrolled on the first year of, Masters or PhD studies at US institutions (9 months to a full academic year); PhD students preparing their doctoral theses at Polish higher education or research institutions for a research project to be carried out at an US institution (6 to 9 months); and to US citizens for postgraduate studies or research at Polish higher education or research institutions (up to 9 months).


Other international / bilateral scholarship programmes

Lane Kirkland Scholarship Programme

The Programme was launched in 2000 and is funded by the Polish-American Freedom Foundation. Scholarships (ca 50 per year) for studies at Polish higher education institutions are currently awarded to students from Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and the Ukraine. The Programme is managed by the Education for Democracy Foundation.


National programmes / initiatives

Studies abroad for outstanding Polish students and graduates

A Polish government programme ‘Studies for the Outstanding’(Studia dla wybitnych’) was announced in 2015. It is designed to provide grants for studies at best international universities of the Shanghai Ranking (Academic Ranking of World Universities) for Bachelor’s degree programme graduates and outstanding students who have completed the 3rd year of a Master’s degree programme. Currently, the new Government (which took office in November 2015) is working to improve application and selection procedures for the programme.


Scholarship programmes / funds for international students

Polish Erasmus for Ukraine

The Programme, launched in 2014 by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, is based on the same principles as the EU Erasmus programme, providing opportunities to undertake a fee-free period of study (two semesters) at Polish higher education institutions. Scholarships are available to students, including PhD students, from the entire territory of the Ukraine, but priority is given to those living in the areas of military conflict.

Other scholarship programmes

There are several government scholarship programmes open to students from Eastern Partnership and post-Soviet countries. They include, for example: the Konstanty Kalinowski Scholarship Programme; the Programme for specialist Eastern Studies students; and the Stefan Banach Scholarship Programme for second- and third-cycle studies.

A list of the main scholarship programmes for international students is available at:

Other useful information

Information on the higher education system, programmes and scholarships offered, and practical information about Poland can be found in the above-mentioned ‘Go Poland’ Portal (http://www.go-poland.pl/), run as part of the ‘Ready, Study, Go! Poland’ campaign.

Detailed regulations for foreigners taking up study and studying in Poland according to rules and conditions different than those for Polish citizens are included in the Regulation by the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 October 2006 on conditions for undertaking study and training by foreigners and their participation in scientific research and development activities (as subsequently amended).

Academic staff mobility

Polish academic staff mobility to European countries is closely related to the implementation of the Bologna Declaration as the activities undertaken abroad are aimed at improving the quality of education and developing new study programmes in Polish higher education institutions (HEIs). Moreover, the above-mentioned Strategy for the Development of Human Capital, adopted by the previous Government, provided for the introduction of mobility as an integral element of staff development. In line with the aims and principles adopted, mobility was to serve as a tool for exchange and gaining experience, as well for building relational capital. The Strategy envisaged, among other things, increasing outward mobility of Polish academic staff to international HEIs and inward mobility of international staff. For the current Government (which took office in November 2015), internationalisation, including mobility, is one of the ten key issues to be addressed in a new Higher Education Act; see the Introductory page.

Information on staff mobility is provided annually by HEIs in their reports for the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The Foundation for the Development of the Education System produces various statistical and / or analytical materials on the implementation of the EU programmes which it manages. However, there are no aggregate or summary analyses concerning the impact of all programmes and initiatives supporting academic staff mobility.

HEIs are required by national legislation to conduct a periodic appraisal of academic staff as part of their internal quality assurance systems, but detailed performance assessment criteria are laid down by individual institutions within their autonomy. International experience such as visits, exchange, participation in the Erasmus Programme, etc. may be taken into consideration in periodic appraisal of academic staff and in the assessment of their achievements for academic career progression.

Like in the case of students, EU Erasmus+ is currently the most important programme in terms of the number of outgoing and incoming teachers, but mobility opportunities are also offered by other multilateral, bilateral and national programmes or initiatives.


EU Programmes

Like in the case of students again, greater mobility opportunities were offered to Polish academic teachers by the TEMPUS Programme, launched by the European Community in 1990, and, subsequently, by the EU Socrates and Lifelong Learning Programmes (see Section 13.2.1). Currently, the Erasmus+ Programme (2014-2020) supports academic staff mobility as part of both Learning Mobility projects in Action 1 and three types of projects in Action 2: Strategic Partnerships, Knowledge Alliances and Capacity Building in Higher Education. In Learning Mobility projects, teachers can choose between teaching assignments which are an integral part of study programmes at higher education institutions abroad and training periods at institutions or enterprises abroad (e.g. participation in training courses, workshops, job shadowing, etc.). A mobility period can have a duration of 2 days (5 days in the case of so-called Partner Countries; see the list in the Erasmus+ Programme Guide) to 2 months. Mobility in Action 2 projects is closely linked with the objectives of a given project. Teachers may go abroad for a period of 5 days to 12 months in Strategic Partnership and Capacity Building projects, and for 2 to 60 days in Knowledge Alliances.

http://erasmusplus.org.pl/szkolnictwo-wyzsze/

http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/erasmus-plus_en


Multilateral programmes

Central European Exchange Programme for University Studies (CEEPUS) and International Visegrad Fund: see Section 13.2.1.

Bilateral programmes / initiatives

Bilateral agreements and the Fellowship Fund: see Section 13.2.1.

Fullbright Programme

The Fullbright Programme mentioned above (see Section 13.2.1) offers scholarships to Polish and American academic staff. Scholarships for Polish academic staff are intended for teaching assignments and research work at US higher education institutions (3 to 9 months) or academics’ own research projects to be conducted at US higher education institutions, non-profit research institutions and some government institutions (4 to 9 months). American academic staff may receive a scholarship for a teaching assignment (1 semester or academic year) or research work (3 months to academic year) at a Polish higher education or research institution. Scholarships are also awarded to American experts in various areas for teaching assignments or research at Polish academic, cultural and educational institutions (14 to 42 days) and to recent graduates of US institutions for English-language assistantships or teaching at Polish higher education institutions (1 academic year).


Other scholarship programmes

The Foundation for Polish Science manages a number of programmes, funded from various sources, which offer, among other things, scholarships to academic staff at various stages of their research career, e.g. junior researchers and outstanding researchers with documented achievements.


National programmes / initiatives

Mobility Plus

The Mobility Plus (Mobilność Plus) Programme, launched by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in 2012, provides opportunities for junior researchers (aged up to 35 years), including PhD students, to participate in research conducted at renowned international research institutions. Scholarships are awarded for a period of 6 to 36 months.


Other useful information

EURAXESS: European and Polish network of information centres for researchers

The network offers support in various legal and administrative issues related to international mobility of researchers. It publishes job offers, and information about grants and internships available in all European countries.