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Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Strategic context at European level

For more than 15 years a wider framework for mobility and internationalisation has been provided by European initiatives and processes which Poland joined first as an EU candidate country and as from 2014 as an EU Member State. Currently, the key ones are Education and Training 2020 (‘the strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training’ adopted in 2009), supporting the implementation of the comprehensive EU development strategy Europe 2020, and the Bologna and Copenhagen Processes, linked to EU strategies, which focus on higher education and vocational education and training, respectively.

One of the common EU objectives set for education and training systems in Education and Training 2020 concerns mobility. For this objective, the EU adopted in 2011 a benchmark whereby until 2020, on average, at least 20% of higher education graduates and at least 6% of 18-34-years-oldswith an initial vocational qualification should have completed a period of study or training (including a practical placement) abroad.

Mobility and internationalisation have been a key priority for years in the Bologna Process launched in 1999; a benchmark where at least 20% of students graduating in the European Higher Education Area by 2020 should have completed a period of study or practical training abroad was set in the Process as early as in 2009. In the Copenhagen Process, implemented since 2002, mobility is a crucial element increasing the European dimension of vocational education and training.


Strategic context at national level

No separate strategy has been designed in Poland for mobility or internationalisation at early childhood and school education or higher education level, and no separate national benchmarks for mobility have been defined.

However, mobility and internationalisation featured strongly in strategic documents concerning higher education adopted by the previous Government between 2013 and 2015. One of the priorities in the 2013 Strategy for the Development of Human Capital 2020 was to increase mobility of academic staff and students in the context of improving the quality of education, young people gaining experience and academic staff developing networks necessary to conduct academic and research activities. Internationalisation was also part of the priority related to the quality of education in the Higher Education Development Programme, 2015-2030. The Programme envisaged activities such as supporting higher education institutions in obtaining international accreditations; promoting studies in Poland; encouraging the development of programmes in the English language; encouraging foreigners to learn the Polish language and about Poland; establishing interdisciplinary doctoral schools; and extending the range or scope of scholarship programmes supporting mobility and international cooperation.

Currently, internationalisation, including mobility, is one of the ten key issues which the new Government (which took office in November 2015) intends to address in a new Higher Education Act (‘Ten most important issues to be resolved in a new Higher Education Act’, a draft document, 17 February 2016, Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Science Policy Committee; http://www.nauka.gov.pl/ustawa20/). The aims and principles underlying the new Act will be developed by (a) team(s) of academic community members selected through the Call for proposals published by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. (A) proposal(s) consulted with the academic community will be submitted by the end of January 2017. Moreover, the Ministry is currently establishing an advisory group, composed of representatives of the academic community, including students, to address the issue of internationalisation of higher education.


Tools facilitating mobility

A number of arrangements and tools directly or indirectly supporting mobility have been adopted at European level. These include, among other things:

  • the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) providing a reference system which helps to describe and compare internationally qualifications obtained as part of lifelong learning in individual countries;
  • credit systems, the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and the European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET), which enable accumulation, transfer and recognition of learning outcomes achieved as part of formal education in various institutions or non-formal education in different settings;
  • a set of Europass documents, including, in particular, a Diploma Supplement for higher education diplomas and a Certificate Supplement for vocational qualifications, which describe qualifications obtained by individuals in a standardised and transparent way.

Details about European tools.

Poland has implemented the Polish Qualifications Framework (PQF), presenting qualifications awarded in the country as referenced to the EQF. Together with the Integrated Qualifications Register, the PQF is part of the Integrated Qualifications System which, based on an Act of Parliament adopted in December 2015, is to be launched in July 2016 (further details). Based on national legislation, ECTS was introduced as mandatory for Polish higher education institutions in 2006 and a Diploma Supplement has been issued by institutions since 2004. Pursuant to national legislation, Certificate Supplements are issued, at the request of vocational school graduates, by the Regional Examination Boards responsible for external examinations.


Recognition of qualifications

School education

Recognition of qualifications (certificates, diplomas and degrees) is regulated in accordance with EU legislation and international conventions. Certificates and other documents at school education level are recognised on the basis of the 1991 School Education Act amended in 2015 and the Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 25 March 2015 on the procedure for the recognition of certificates or other documents, or validation of a qualification or entitlement to continue education, obtained in a foreign system of school education. The following documents are recognised automatically, by virtue of law, without being validated by other institutions:

  • maturity / upper secondary school leaving certificates awarded in EU Member States and EEA (European Economic Area) and OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) member states which give holders the right to apply for admission to a higher education programme in the awarding country;
  • IB (International Baccalaureate) diplomas awarded by the International Baccalaureate Organization in Geneva;
  • EB (European Baccalaureate) diplomas awarded by the European Schools in accordance with the Convention defining the statute of the European schools adopted in Luxembourg in 1994;
  • certificates covered by international agreements signed by Poland (see the list).

In other cases, certificates and other documents are recognised through an administrative process conducted by the Head of the Regional Education Authorities (kurator oświaty). Details about the procedure.

Higher education

Higher education qualifications are also recognised on the basis of international agreements (see the link above) or through an official recognition procedure (nostryfikacja). Official recognition is regulated by the following legislative acts:

  • the Act of 27 July 2005, the Law on Higher Education, and the Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 19 August 2015 on the recognition of higher education diplomas awarded abroad and on the validation of completion of a degree programme at a specific level – for degrees awarded upon completion of first-, second- and long-cycle programmes;
  • the Act of 14 March 2003 on academic degrees and the academic title and degrees and the title in fine arts, and the Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 8 August 2011 on the recognition of academic degrees awarded abroad – for doctoral and post-doctoral degrees.

The recognition process is conducted by organisational units of higher education institutions authorised to award a doctoral degree in the relevant area in the case of first-, second- and long-cycle degrees, and by organisational units of higher education or research institutions in the case of doctoral and post-doctoral degrees.

In the case of professions which are not regulated in Poland, a decision to recognise a foreign professional qualification is taken by the employer. The employer may require confirmation of the equivalence of a foreign document attesting to a qualification (which, as mentioned above, takes place on the basis of an international agreement or through an official recognition procedure). Qualifications in regulated professions are recognised in accordance with: the Act of 22 December 2015 on the rules for the recognition of professional qualifications acquired in Member States of the European Union, which amended the previous Act in line with changes introduced by the EU Directive No. 2013/55/EU; and implementing regulations based on the new Act. Details about the recognition of professional qualifications.


Programmes and initiatives supporting mobility

Learning mobility at different levels of lifelong learning takes place primarily within EU programmes in the field of education and training: earlier, the Socrates and Lifelong Learning Programmes and, currently, the Erasmus+ Programme. However, there are also multilateral, bilateral and national programmes (co-)funded by the Polish Government and / or other countries, or international organisations (see details in the next sections).

Moreover, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MoS&HE) provide funding for various initiatives supporting internationalisation and mobility. For example, since 2003, the MoNE has allocated national funding for projects supporting international cooperation and exchanges of children and young people. As part of the ‘Ready, Study, Go! Poland’ campaign, the MoS&HE, the Foundation for the Development of the Education System and the Conference of Rectors of Academic Schools in Poland (CRASP) have organised since 2012 various actions supporting internationalisation of higher education and promoting studies in Poland. One of them is the multilingual portal [file:///T:/EURYPEDIA2016/Po%20tłumaczu/(http:/www.go-poland.pl/ Go Poland] which provides information on the higher education system, including tuition fees and scholarships, practical information on entering and living in Poland, publications and promotional materials, etc. It also has a search engine for programmes by field and level of study and language of instruction.


Institutions responsible for various aspects of internationalisation and mobility: