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Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

A key role in management at the institutional level, both in early childhood and school education, is played by the head of a given nursery school, school or institution (further on jointly referred to as "school", wherever possible). Pursuant to the School Education Act of 7 September 1991, the head of a public school is the only single-person authority which cooperates with school collective bodies: the teaching council, the school council and the parents' council (where established) as well as with the pupil self-government (only in schools) (see also: Section 2.7. - Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level). Moreover, public schools which have a certain number of classes (as laid down in the legislation) may establish deputy head and other management positions. Deputy heads and other management staff are appointed by the school head after consultation with the school managing body, the school council and the teaching council. The governing bodies and management positions, including the school head, and their powers and responsibilities in non-public schools are specified in their statutes.

In accordance with the School Education Act of 7 September 1991 (as subsequently amended), the Teachers’ Charter Act of 26 January 1982 (as subsequently amended) and relevant regulations, the school head in the public sector performs the following tasks:

1. As the head of the institution for teachers and non-teaching staff

  • manages the school and represents it in its external environment;
  • employs and dismisses teachers and non-teaching staff;
  • gives awards and administers disciplinary penalties;
  • submits, after consultation with the teaching council and the school council, proposals for awards and distinctions to be given at higher governance levels.
  • creates additional posts for deputy directors and other management positions;
  • conducts performance assessment of teachers;
  • conducts performance assessment of non-teaching staff;
  • effects transfers of teachers employed on the basis of appointment;
  • grants paid training leaves and awards other benefits and allowances related to continuing professional development;

2. With respect to finance

  • drafts school financial plans;
  • manages financial resources as included in the school's financial plan (consulted with the school council) and is responsible for their proper use;
  • ensures adequate, effective and efficient management control over the school.

3. With respect to the organisation of school work

  • prepares a school organisation sheet;
  • prepares a school timetable;
  • provides care for pupils and conditions for their harmonious psychological and physical development through health promoting activities;
  • implements resolutions adopted by the school council and the teaching council within their remit;
  • performs tasks related to ensuring safe conditions for pupils and teachers during classes organised by the school;
  • is responsible for the proper organisation and conduct of external exams/tests (taken by pupils at the end of primary, lower and upper secondary school);
  • creates educational, subject-related and other problem- or task-related teams, and appoints their leaders;
  • is responsible for grouping pupils;
  • approves preschool or school curricula proposed by teachers for the use at school;
  • takes responsibility for the compliance of the (pre)school curriculum with the core curriculum established by the Minister;
  • is responsible for defining the number of hours for teaching minority or regional languages, history and culture in the school timetable (in effect since September 2012);

4. With respect to cooperation with school bodies and external institutions

  • cooperates with the school council, teaching council, parents and pupil self-government;
  • cooperates with higher education institutions and teacher training colleges in the organisation of teaching placements for their students;
  • provides conditions in the school for activities undertaken by volunteers, associations and other organisations (in particular, scout organisations) whose statutory aim is to organise educational activities or support educational and care-related activities of schools;

5. With respect to the professional promotion of teachers

  • prepares a multiannual continuing professional development (CPD) plan for teachers (taking into consideration the school/institutional development plan and related staff needs, CPD plans of individual teachers, teachers’ applications for CPD funding);
  • approves professional development plans of individual teachers;
  • appoints mentors to support trainee teachers and contract teachers;
  • conducts an assessment of the teacher’s professional achievements;
  • appoints a qualification board for the promotion of the trainee teacher to the contract teacher grade, and acts as its chair;
  • is a member of qualification boards and examination boards for the promotion of teachers to higher professional grades;
  • provides conditions for trainee teachers undertaking their probation period to take part in the observation of lessons conducted by other teachers, in different forms of CPD and in support provided by psychological and pedagogical centres (in effect since March 2013);
  • may give consent to the repetition of the probation period lasting 9 months.

6. With respect to pedagogical supervision (see also Section 11.1. – Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education)

  • exercises pedagogical supervision (if he/she is a teacher; otherwise this function is performed by a teacher holding a management position);
  • carries out internal evaluations and internal audits of the school;
  • cooperates with the Regional Education Authorities, a body exercising pedagogical supervision;
  • agrees the course of an external evaluation of the school with the person authorised to conduct it and provides him/her with all necessary information on the school performance (in effect since June 2013);
  • develops a plan of pedagogical supervision for each school year which is then presented at the meeting of the teaching council (in effect since June 2013).

7. With respect to psychological and pedagogical support

  • organises psychological and pedagogical support for pupils;
  • initiates the provision of psychological and pedagogical support to pupils;
  • coordinates the provision of psychological and pedagogical support, defines its forms, duration and the number of hours of each form;
  • in the process of planning psychological and pedagogical support, cooperates with pupils’ parents and, if necessary, with teachers, educators and specialists providing support.

The tasks listed above have been in effect since May 2013, pursuant to the Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 30 April 2013 on the rules for provision and organisation of psychological and educational support in public nursery schools and schools.

Requirements for appointment as a school head

The requirements for the position of the head of a public school (or a public nursery school or institution) are specified in the School Education Act of 7 September 1991 and the Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 27 October 2009 on the requirements to be fulfilled by individuals holding the position of school head and other management positions in individual types of public schools and institutions (as subsequently amended). The position of school head may be taken by both a teacher and an individual who is not a teacher.

The position of head in a public (nursery) school or institution may be taken by an appointed or chartered teacher (i.e. a teacher holding the third or fourth of the four professional promotion grades; see Section 9.2. - Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education) who complies with all of the following requirements:

  1. has completed a Master's (magister) degree programme, holds a teaching qualification and any other qualifications required to take a teaching post in a given (nursery) school or institution;
  2. has completed a degree programme or a non-degree postgraduate programme in the field of management, or a qualification course in school education management provided in accordance with the regulations on in-service teacher training institutions;
  3. has at least 5 years of teaching experience as a school teacher or academic teacher;
  4. has been given at least a ‘good’ grade in his/her performance appraisal during the previous 5 years or a positive assessment of his/her professional achievements during the previous year, or – in the case of an academic teacher – a positive assessment in his/her performance appraisal at his/her higher education institution during the previous 4 years;
  5. meets health requirements for a managerial position;
  6. has not been punished with a disciplinary penalty envisaged in the relevant regulations and is not subject to any disciplinary proceedings;
  7. has not been convicted of an intentional offence or an intentional fiscal offence;
  8. is not subject to any legal proceedings initiated by public prosecution services;
  9. has not been banned from performing functions related to the management of public funds.

The legislation also provides for the position of school head in specific types of schools to be held by teachers who do not hold a Master's degree, but who have completed a first-cycle (Bachelor's degree) programme or a programme in a teacher training college (in accordance with qualification requirements for teachers in individual types of school; see also Section 9.2. - Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education). Other requirements are the same as in the case of teachers with a Master's degree.

The position of the head of a public (nursery) school or institution may also be taken by an individual who is not a teacher. In this case, a school head may be an individual who fulfils all of the following requirements:

  • is a Polish national, but this requirement does not apply to EU nationals and nationals of the EFTA countries which are parties to the EEA agreement and nationals of the Swiss Confederation;
  • holds a Master's degree;
  • has at least 5-year work experience, including at least 2-year work experience in a management position;
  • enjoys full legal capacity and public rights;
  • is not subject to any legal proceedings initiated by public prosecution services or disciplinary proceedings;
  • meets the requirements specified in points 2, 5, 7 and 9 above concerning school heads who are teachers.

Management training courses mentioned above among the qualification requirements usually last ca. 200 hours and cover a number of topics. These include: general organisation and management theory; school education law; change management; psychology in managing an educational institution; quality management and quality measurement; educational institution in its local environment; school education and care programme; organisation of the teaching process; and development of a programme for an educational institution.

The legislation does not specify requirements for the position of head in non-public schools (nursery schools and other educational institutions). Such requirements are laid down by the body managing a given institution in internal regulations. They can be identical with the requirements for school heads in the public sector.

Conditions of service

Recruitment

The head of a public school (or a nursery school or institution) is appointed by the school managing body on the basis of an administrative act (see also: Sections 2.6. - Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level, and 2.7. - Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level). Where the head to be appointed is not a teacher, the managing body is additionally required to consult the body exercising external pedagogical supervision (i.e. the head of the Regional Education Authorities /kurator oświaty/).

The candidate is selected through an open competition organised by the managing body of the (nursery) school/institution. The managing body appoints a competition committee which consists of its own representatives (3 members), representatives of the body responsible for pedagogical supervision (kurator oświaty) (2 members), and representatives of the school's teaching council, its parents’ council and its institutional trade unions (1 member from each). The total number of representatives of the managing and pedagogical supervision bodies may not be smaller than that of the other representatives so as to ensure that the majority represents the bodies which are responsible for the quality of school performance. The committee holds an interview with the candidates who meet formal requirements, assessing, in particular, their concept of the functioning and development of a school. If no irregularities have been noted, the managing body approves the competition and the selected candidate.

There is no requirement for heads of non-public schools (or nursery schools and institutions) to be appointed through a competition. Relevant procedures are laid down in internal regulations by individual institutions.

In accordance with the relevant regulations, the position of school head in the public sector may be held for 5 school years, but in justified cases the term of office may be shorter, though not less than one school year. After this period, the school managing body may extend the employment period for the school head for another 5 years or a shorter period after consultation with the school council and the teaching council. These matters are not regulated by the regulations for non-public schools (or nursery schools and institutions).

Dismissal

The head of a public (nursery) school (institution) may be dismissed by the school managing body in the case of:

  • his/her resignation;
  • a negative assessment of his/her performance, including the performance of tasks related to financial management or compliance with the law, given in agreement with the body responsible for pedagogical supervision;
  • a dismissal request submitted by the body responsible for pedagogical supervision in case the school head failed to comply with the legislation within a timeframe set by the pedagogical supervision body.

Conditions for the dismissal of school heads in the non-public sector are laid down in internal regulations by individual institutions.

Working time

The working time of a school head in the public sector is regulated by the Act of 26 January 1982, The Teachers' Charter, in the case of a teacher-school head, and by the Labour Code (i.e. general employment legislation) in the case of a school head who is not a teacher. In accordance with the Teachers' Charter, the working time of a full-time teacher cannot exceed 40 hours per week. A school head who is a teacher either has his/her weekly teaching load reduced (e.g. 18 class hours in primary and lower secondary education) according to the size and type of school and working conditions or is fully relieved from his/her teaching duties. For example, the head of a school consisting of 4 classes is obliged to teach 12 class hours per week, whereas the head of a school with 17 or more classes has only 3 teaching hours. Holiday entitlements are the same as in the case of regular teachers (see Section 9.2. - Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education).

In accordance with the Labour Code, the working time of a school head who is not a teacher cannot exceed 8 hours per day and 40 hours in a 5-day working week, but management staff are obliged, when necessary, to work extra hours without any overtime pay. School heads who are not teachers have the same holiday entitlements as other employees covered by the Labour Code.

In the non-public sector, the Labour Code applies both to school heads who are and who are not teachers. In practice, the majority of non-public (nursery) schools (institutions) adopt arrangements which are similar to those in the public sector.

Salaries

Like in the case of the working time, salaries of school heads in the public sector are subject to different regulations, depending on whether they are or are not teachers. Salaries of teachers-school heads are determined in accordance with the regulations applicable to all teachers (in particular, the Teachers' Charter and the Regulation of the Minister of National Education and Sports of 31 January 2005 on the minimum rates of the basic pay for teachers, general conditions for granting allowances added to the basic pay and the remuneration for work on days free of duty (as subsequently amended)).

The school head's salary consists of the basic pay and allowances (including, a function-related allowance and a length-of-service allowance) and, where applicable, the pay for overtime hours and ad hoc replacements, awards and other benefits. The minimum rates of the basic pay, which take into account teachers' professional promotion grades (see: Section 9.2. - Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education), the level of formal qualifications and the teaching load, are determined annually by the minister responsible for school education in a relevant regulation. The rate to be applied in a given case is negotiated between the school head and the school managing body.

Salaries of school heads who are not teachers are determined in accordance with the Act of 21 November 2008 on local government employees and the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 18 March 2009 on the remuneration of local government employees, as subsequently amended (school heads are employed by the school managing body which, in most cases, is a local government body; see also: Sections 2.6. - Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level, and 2.7. - Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level). In this case, the school head's salary consists of the basic pay, a function-related allowance and, where applicable, a length-of-service allowance and an allowance for increased workload or work in specific conditions.

In the school year 2014/2015 annual gross basic statutory salaries of school heads (full-time and fully qualified school heads in public schools) were as follows:


Minimum Maximum
Nursery school 29 015 PLN (6 790 EUR) 38 054 PLN (8 905 EUR)
Primary school 29 015 PLN (6 790 EUR) 38 054 PLN (8 905 EUR)
Lower - secondary school 32 910 PLN (7 701 EUR) 43 390 PLN (10 154 EUR)
Upper – secondary school 37 606 PLN (8 800 EUR) 49 666 PLN (11 623 EUR)

The information on school heads’ salaries is annually updated by the Eurydice National Units in the publication Teachers’ and School Head’s Salaries and Allowances in Europe:


Salaries of school heads in the non-public sector, regardless of whether they are or are not teachers, are determined by their employer (the body managing a given nursery school, school or institution) in accordance with the Labour Code.

Promotion

School heads who are teachers are promoted to higher professional grades according to the promotion rules for all teachers (see: Section 9.2. - Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education).

Retirement

School heads who are teachers have the same rights with regard to retirement, based on the Act of 22 May 2009 on Teachers’ Compensation Allowances, as all other teachers (see: Section 9.2. - Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education). School heads who are not teachers and school heads in the non-public sector are subject to the retirement provisions of the Labour Code and other generally applicable retirement regulations.

Evaluation

The school head's performance is subject to assessment. As in the case of all teachers (see: Section 11.1. – Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education), the assessment of the school head's performance may be conducted any time, but not earlier than one year after the previous assessment or – if the school head is a teacher and has applied for a higher professional grade – after the previous assessment of professional achievements (the latter being a precondition for an application for promotion). The request for assessment may be submitted by the school head, the school managing body, the body responsible for pedagogical supervision, the school council, or the parents' council. The assessment covers: planning and organising educational and care activities; managing human resources, including, in particular, pedagogical supervision; tasks assigned to school heads in the relevant legislation, and educational and care tasks assigned to teachers in the relevant legislation (where the school head is a teacher); professional development, and work quality and outcomes. The assessment of the school head's performance takes into account findings from pedagogical supervision over the school and results of the external exam achieved by pupils/students in a given school.

Depending on the area assessed, the assessment is carried out by the school managing body and/or the body responsible for pedagogical supervision (kurator oświaty). As in the case of teachers, the assessment ends with a general statement: a ‘distinguishing’, ‘good’ or ‘negative’ grade. A school head may appeal against the result of the assessment. Appeals are considered by a team appointed by the school managing body which consists of its representatives as well as representatives of the pedagogical supervision body, the school council or the parents' council and, at the school head's request, a teacher-methodical advisor and a representative of the trade union.

Continuing professional development

As in the case of teachers, school heads are not obliged by the legislation to undertake continuing professional development (CPD) activities but, as mentioned above, professional development is taken into account in the assessment of their performance. Training courses and other types of CPD activities for school heads are organised by in-service teacher training institutions and continuing education centres, higher education institutions and other educational and training institutions.