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Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

The political system in Poland is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997. In accordance with the Constitution:

  • The legislative power is exercised by a two-chamber Parliament which includes the Sejm and the Senat, elected for a 4-year term.
    • The Sejm is the lower chamber of the Parliament and consists of 460 members elected according to the proportional election system. The Sejm exercises the legislative power and supervises the government.
    • The Senat, the upper chamber of the Parliament re-established in 1989, has 100 members elected according to the majority system. The legislative power of  the Senat is limited to the legislative initiative and proposals of amendments to bills passed by the Sejm.
  • The executive power is exercised by the President and the Council of Ministers.
  • The President of Poland is the head of state and safeguards its sovereignty and security, and the integrity of the territory. He also supervises the adherence to the Constitution. The president is elected by the nation in free, popular and direct elections for a 5-year term.
  • The Council of Ministers is responsible for internal and foreign policies and supervises the administration. The Council is responsible for all policies which are not reserved for other state or local government bodies.
  • The territorial organisation of the Polish state ensures the decentralization of the public authorities. Poland is divided into 16 provinces or regions (województwo), 380 districts (powiat), and 2478 communes (gmina). This territorial division is defined in the Act of 24 July 1998 on the Introduction of the Basic Three-tier Territorial Division. The head of the province (wojewoda) represents the Council of Ministers in a given region. The head of the province supervises the institutions performing the tasks entrusted to the state. The regional education authorities (kuratorium oświaty) are included in the regional administration and are responsible for pedagogical supervision over schools. Following the 1998 reforms of administration and local government, the heads of the provinces are mainly responsible for supervision. The governance at regional level is the responsibility of local government bodies: the governor marshall of the province and the council of the province.
  • The local government takes part in exercising public authority. A major part of the local government’s public tasks are performed in its own name and on its own responsibility. The following three levels of local government have existed since 1999: gmina, powiat and województwo.

As laid down in the Constitution, the commune (gmina) is the basic local government body. Its responsibilities include all public matters of local importance which are not defined as the responsibility of other bodies. It is obliged to fulfil the needs of the local community in the following areas: healthcare, welfare, culture and education. It is responsible for administering nursery schools (przedszkole), primary schools (szkoła podstawowa) and lower secondary schools (gimnazjum). This body operates on the basis of the Act of 8 March 1990 on the Commune-level Local Government.

The district (powiat) was established on 1 January 1999 as the second level of local government. The district supports the commune in performing all functions which extend beyond the capacity and remit of the latter. It has the following responsibilities: administering upper secondary schools and hospitals, and managing public roads. It is also responsible for combating unemployment, and for the protection of consumers’ rights. It operates on the basis of the Act of 5 June 1998 on the District-level Local Government.

The self-governing province (województwo) was established on 1 January 1999 as the third level of local government. Its responsibilities include regional economic and social development as well as the establishment and administration of public initial and in-service teacher training institutions, educational resources centres, and schools and institutions operating at regional and supra-regional levels. Its scope of activities does not interfere with the independence of the district and the commune. It operates on the basis of the Act of 5 June 1998 on the Province-level Local Government.