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Poland:Introduction

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Overall national education strategy and key objectives

Current reforms and initiatives are designed to cover comprehensive measures in various areas of education:

  • in the school education system: introduction of new core curricula for pre-school education and general education encompassing all the stages of school education which are in line with the aims of the policy based on learning outcomes; vocational and continuing education of adults reform; reform of external general and vocational exams coherent with the new core curriculum for both general and vocational education; consolidation of the school support and management system; implementation of the new system for evaluation of school performance; advancement of plans to promote pre-primary education in Poland to reach the European level – introduction of mechanisms that will guarantee the right to pre-school education to all 3-year olds by 2017;
  • in the higher education system – continuous implementation of measures aimed at stimulating correspondence between study programmes and the needs of the labour market. Previously introduced programme of supported fields of study (supporting selected fields of studies considered crucial from the labour market’s perspective) will be replaced by the new programme aimed at supporting key competences that need to be developed regardless of the field of study. Additionally, new measures for monitoring graduates’ professional career and pro-quality financing mechanisms are being introduced. learning in general: extension of life-long learning forms, from early education and care services, including those for children under 3 years of age in which parental education is as important as the education of children, to the promotion of and support for the development of non-formal adult education, including, education in the workplace, civic involvement and senior education.

Overview of the education reform process and drivers

Comprehensive character of the aforementioned measures follows the objectives of the Lifelong Learning policy promoted in the EU since the beginning of the last decade. Coherence of these measures is to be achieved by a consistent use of the learning outcomes approach which is the basis for the European Qualifications Framework. Reforms of curricula including pre-primary and compulsory education curricula, ISCED 0-2, (since 2009), higher education (since October 2011), general and vocational education, ISCED 3-4, (since September 2012) and adult continuous education (since September 2012) are being implemented in accordance with this approach.

Complex reform of the education system was included in the governmental process of organising strategic documents completed in 2013.On the basis of the plan, previous multiple sectoral strategies have been reduced to two general strategies (long- and medium-term) and nine integrated strategies encompassing all measures reforming the country, concerning: economy, human and social capital, energy security and environment, transport, efficient state, national safety, regional development and rural areas. This means that other areas assigned to particular Ministers, including those connected with general, vocational or higher education, are not covered by these strategic documents. However, each of the strategies includes also horizontal issues, i.e. development of digitization and development of competences and qualification of citizens, resulting from the lifelong learning. The latter issue is most frequently included in The Strategy for the Development of Human Capital, The Strategy for the Development of Social Capital, The Strategy for Innovation and Efficiency of the Economy, National Strategy of Regional Development and The Strategy for Sustainable Development of Rural Areas, Agriculture and Fisheries. On September 2013 the government adopted the new integrated strategic document entitled The Lifelong Learning Perspective, covering various forms of learning (formal, non-formal, informal) at different educational levels (from ECEC to senior education). Implementation of this document results from Poland’s international obligations concerning European cooperation on education and training ET 2020 as well as from the recommendation of the Council of the EU on Polish National Reform Programme issued in the framework of monitoring the implementation of Europe 2020 strategy. This document’s aim is to develop a consistent attitude towards lifelong learning, not only within formal education system, but also in other aspects of the State’s activity in which the question of qualifications and competences of citizens is important. The Additional information concerning consolidation of the strategic documents, including also new strategies and programmes, is available on the Ministry of Infrastructure and Development’s website in the section concerning development policy. Information on The Lifelong Learning Perspective is available in Polish on The Chancellery of the Prime minister’s website and The Ministry of National Education’s website.