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Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

= Academic guidance =

Schools for adults, continuing education centres, practical training centres and in-service training centres provide psychological and educational support.

In public schools for adults, counselling and guidance is provided during the coursework with students and takes the form of:

  • courses related to the choice of a training area and career, and education and career planning;
  • guidance and counselling sessions;
  • workshops and training.

Selected central government, local government and non-governmental agencies also organise single, cyclical or occasional advisory meetings on issues related to law or social problem prevention.

Psychological counselling

Students of public schools for adults may use counselling and guidance offered by psychologists employed in their schools as part psychological and educational support.

This task is also implemented by non-governmental organisations using government, local government and European Union funds.

Career guidance

Under the Resolution of the Council of the European Union, career guidance in a lifelong learning perspective refers to services and activities which aim to assist in making educational and occupational choices and managing careers, and which are offered to persons of any age and at any stage of life.

These services are rendered by:

  • schools, including schools for adults;
  • higher education institutions;
  • training institutions;
  • public employment agencies;
  • employers;
  • non-governmental organisations;
  • private entities.

Career guidance is provided:

  • to individuals and groups;
  • in direct contact with service users or in a distant form (e.g.: online courses and classes, help lines, Internet services, telephone calls or online communicators).

The services include:

  • help with finding a job;
  • organisation or help with internships, practical placements or voluntary service;
  • access to up-to-date information about jobs, and improving or acquiring knowledge and occupational skills;
  • help with developing clients’ knowledge about themselves, their abilities and expectations, strengthening self-esteem and increasing motivation;
  • development of skills needed for planning educational and career paths, job seeking and preparing for a job interview;
  • development of soft skills, including effective communication, negotiation and assertiveness;
  • support in entry into the labour market, including the transition from school, and adaptation to the work environment.

Adults, including disabled adults, may study in schools for adults and acquire and improve their knowledge, skills and vocational qualifications in non-school settings.

As part of psychological and educational support provided by their school, students of public schools for adults may participate in courses related to the choice of career and training area and on education and career planning. They may also be offered counselling and guidance as well as workshops and training in educational and career guidance.

Career guidance and career-related information activities are also carried out in cooperation with employers and their organisations, and with vocational and continuing education centres. Such centres also provide vocational courses.

Bodies administering public continuing education and in-service training centres can agree to appoint one of the centres to coordinate the theoretical education of young workers in their province or provinces, following consultation with the body or bodies exercising pedagogical supervision over the centres. Such coordinating centres gather, analyse and disseminate information about the scope and needs of young workers’ theoretical education provided by public centres in the province or provinces.

Public continuing education centres, practical training centres and in-service training centres cooperate with:

  • employers in:
  • organising and providing continuing education;
  • preparing educational offers for non-school settings in line with employers’ expectations;
  • continuing education of employees;
  • labour offices in the training of people registered there;
  • other entities providing continuing education as part of their statutory tasks.

The “Active Local Government” Programme operated by the State Fund for the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons (PFRON) is addressed to people diagnosed with a severe, moderate or mild disability.

As part of Module II of the Programme, support for education is provided in the form of a grant to cover the costs of education in a post-secondary school, college or higher education institution (first-cycle, second-cycle or long-cycle programmes, non-degree postgraduate programmes or doctoral programmes offered by higher education institutions in all modes of study, including a distance learning mode).

The Programme is implemented by local governments at the district (powiat) level. Applications are submitted by disabled persons.

Grants are awarded to disabled persons:

  • with a severe or moderate disability;
  • who are enrolled in a higher education institution, post-secondary school or college, or are in the so-called PhD conferment procedure (leading to the award of a doctoral degree) outside a doctoral programme.

Grants may not be awarded to disabled persons who:

  • have payment liabilities to PFRON or the unit implementing the Programme;
  • has taken a leave in its educational institution (e.g. a so-called dean’s leave / a year off; health leave).

In 2016, grants contributing towards the costs of education per semester are as follows:

  • an allowance for the costs of education: 700 to 1,000 PLN (ca 163 to 233 euro);
  • an allowance for the fee for the PhD conferment process: up to 4,000 PLN (ca 930 euro);
  • tuition fees: the amount of a tuition fee for one first-, second- or long-cycle programme currently followed in a higher education institution, regardless of the date where the costs are incurred; a grant exceeding 3,000 PLN (ca 689 euro) may be awarded if the average monthly per capita income of the applicant does not exceed 583 PLN (ca 136 euro (net income).

A grant may be increased if a disabled person is simultaneously following two or more first-, second- or long-cycle programmes (with a grant for the tuition fees for the second and next programmes covering up to 50% of the fee paid for each of these programmes) or if the average monthly per capita income of the applicant does not exceed 583 PLN (ca 136 euro) (net income).

A financial contribution from a disabled person is required. Decisions on support for applications are taken by the district local government body.

To gain sufficient independence in the work environment, graduates who need support to start their internship or graduates already employed may apply - independently or via their statutory representative - for additional permanent or temporary assistance from career advisors working in district labour offices.

Career advisors’ additional responsibilities are defined in writing by district labour offices in consultation with individual disabled persons or their statutory representatives.

Career advisors’ additional responsibilities include, in particular, active cooperation with employers as part of an internship, and support offered to interns in:

  • adaptation to the new environment;
  • full understanding of employers’ requirements;
  • gaining co-workers’ acceptance;
  • coping with crisis situations.

Unemployed people and job seekers (including disabled persons) registered with district labour offices may be offered:

  • career guidance;
  • grants for people undertaking education;
  • training courses (training in non-school settings), organised for learners who wish to acquire, develop or improve general or vocational qualifications, which are necessary for employment, including job seeking skills;
  • internships intended to develop practical skills through the performance of tasks at a work place on a non-contractual basis;
  • vocational training at the work place which enables learners to acquire new vocational qualifications or skills by the practical performance of tasks specific to a job, in accordance with a programme agreed between the head of the relevant local government body, the employer and the unemployed person or unemployed job seeker.

Career guidance involves:

  • individual guidance facilitating the choice of occupation, change of qualifications or taking up or leaving a job;
  • psychological tests and specialist medical examination for employment purposes (certificates of fitness for employment);
  • group guidance facilitating self-assessment and developing skills useful in job seeking and in career development;
  • information on occupations, labour market, education and training opportunities.

Grants for persons enrolling on an education programme are awarded to unemployed people who have no diploma, school leaving certificate, certificate awarded by a training institution or other document certifying that they possess qualifications to perform a particular job, on condition that within 12 months of the date of registration with a district labour office they should enrol on an education programme in:

  • an upper secondary or post-secondary school for adults (either a public school or a non-public school with public school status) or
  • a higher education institution, if they follow a part-time programme.

A grant may be awarded to an unemployed person if the per capita income in his/her family (within the meaning of welfare legislation) does not exceed a threshold set for means-tested welfare benefits. A grant is awarded on the basis of an application submitted by an eligible person.

Grant holders continuing education may receive grant payments until the completion of a programme as provided for in the curriculum. Grant entitlement expires when a student drop out of a programme.

Centres for Information and Career Planning (CICPs) are specialised institutions working within provincial labour offices, which collect and disseminate information about jobs, labour market and opportunities for gaining vocational qualifications, and support their clients in making career choices.

These centres help:

  • unemployed people,
  • job seekers,
  • school leavers,
  • young people in compulsory education,
  • employers.

The following kinds of support are offered as part of guidance:

  • career choice or change,
  • career planning,
  • gaining higher qualifications,
  • determination of one’s own competencies and interests,
  • career development planning.

(Regulation of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 14 May 2014 on detailed conditions, procedures and methods of providing labour market services: Journal of Law, item 667.)

The centres provide information or guidelines on:

  • writing CVs, covering letters and replies to advertisements in magazines;
  • preparation for a job interview;
  • most suitable paths for retraining and further training;
  • effective methods of job seeking;
  • basic issues concerning establishing a business;
  • job profiles for various occupations;
  • job opportunities home and abroad;
  • current labour market situation.

CIPCs also offer free access to information about schools, higher education institutions and training providers, journals, leaflets, CV and covering letter templates, films and portfolios on individual occupations, as well as computer software with information about occupations and training institutions.

As one of the types of services offered, CIPCs organise workshops for anyone who wishes to take up or change a job but encounters obstacles in the process which are difficult to overcome.

Those taking part in workshops may develop job seeking skills such as self-presentation and non-verbal communication, building self-esteem and stress management skills, as well as creative thinking, which help to break routine and habits in everyday activities.

These classes enable participants to learn effective techniques, which make their job seeking efforts more effective. They also enable them to better prepare for a job interview.

As a very important element of their activities, CIPCs collect job offers:

  • through direct links with employers;
  • from information published in the press;
  • from the Internet.

Job seekers are offered the following services:

  • registration in the database on the basis of a completed Job Seeker Sheet;
  • facilitating contacts with employers;
  • assistance in a preliminary qualification assessment.

Career and education advisors work at such centres. The tasks of CIPC staff also include job recruitment for a particular position. They work together with career advisors, for example, to provide support to individuals facing group lay-offs.

People interested in a specific job are selected in line with the requirements of the employer. At employers’ request, CIPC career advisors assess candidates’ fitness for the job in question. Employers may register vacancies by filling in a special form.

CIPCs cooperate with institutions and social partners promoting pro-employment policies and mitigating the consequences of unemployment, e.g.:

  • employers’ unions;
  • heads of regional education authorities;
  • student organisations;
  • welfare centres;
  • non-governmental organisations;
  • healthcare institutions, e.g.: those treating addictions;
  • the media.

All services offered by CIPCs are free of charge.

Career advisors working in labour offices are required to have a higher education qualification, preferably in related fields of study such as psychology, education or sociology.

Career advisors employed by CIPCs have the following assets at their disposal:

  • career-related information;
  • software such as Advisor 2000 which gives quick and easy access to a wide range of career-related information, supports the process of individual client assessment and helps their clients to develop job market skills.

The basic method used by the labour offices is a career advice interview, during which career advisors assess the situation of individual clients, their expectations, interests as well as their work-related skills and talents. At the end of the interview, an individual action plan is developed.

To determine a person’s interests, career advisors use the following tools: Self-Assessment Kit and Holland’s Vocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire. The Self-Assessment Kit is a self-test. It helps to identify occupations matching the client’s interests and skills.

Trained advisors can provide group guidance using two methods: the Educational Method and Inspiration Courses. The Educational Method is centred on the individual and motivates them to take responsibility for their choices. An advisor accompanies an unemployed person in their search, helps them to define priorities and make career choices. This approach stimulates clients by building inner motivation for acting alone on the job market. Inspiration Courses target primarily long-term unemployed persons or those at risk of unemployment. The aim of the course is to encourage participants to actively seek employment.

On their premises, district and provincial labour offices (centres for information and career planning) make occupation-related information resources available to anyone interested.

Occupation-related information is made available on paper, in audio-visual or electronic forms, including the webpages of district and provincial labour offices.