Poland:Glossary

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

asystent nauczyciela

Teacher assistant can be employed in grades 1 to 3 and day-care units in primary schools. Headmasters of primary schools in Poland (including special and integration schools) can employ teacher assistants with the aim of providing support to classroom teachers working in grades 1 to 3 and day-carers.

centrum kształcenia praktycznego

Practical Training Centre (PTC) – a centre providing practical vocational training for adult learners. == == centrum kształcenia zawodowego i ustawicznego Vocational and Continuing Education Centre (VCEC) – a cluster of schools for adult learners which includes at least one vocational school. It offers vocational qualification courses (kwalifikacyjny kurs zawodowy), vocational guidance and support, cooperates with employers and their associations.

dziekan

Head of faculty at a higher education institution.

egzamin gimnazjalny

An external compulsory examination (set by the Central Examination Board, administered and assessed by the Regional Examination Boards) taken by pupils at the end of the 3-year lower secondary school (end of compulsory full time education). It consists of three parts: humanities, science and a modern foreign language. Its results have a strong bearing on pupil’s admission to an upper secondary school.

egzamin maturalny

An external compulsory examination (set by the Central Examination Board, administered and assessed by the Regional Examination Boards) taken by pupils at the end of general and technical upper secondary schools. The written part includes the following subjects: Polish language, mathematics, modern foreign language and also a national minority language for those pupils for whom this language was the language of instruction. All these subjects are compulsory and are taken at the basic level. Additionally, for the written part, pupils have to choose 1 to 5 subjects from the list of optional subjects (extended level only). The oral part, prepared and assessed by the school teachers, consists of compulsory as well as additional subjects. Compulsory subjects are Polish language and a modern foreign language (as well as a national minority language for those pupils for whom this language was the language of instruction). This examination is not obligatory and gives access to higher education.

egzamin potwierdzający kwalifikacje w zawodzie

Examination confirming vocational qualifications designed to assess the level of acquisition by a pupil/learner of the knowledge and skills required for a given qualification, as defined in the core curriculum for vocational education. Examination confirming vocational qualifications consists of two parts: a written part and a practical part. On passing an exam for a single qualification, a pupil/adult learner receives a certificate issued by the Regional Examination Board, and after passing exams for all the qualifications required for a given occupation (and having completed the expected level of general education), he/she receives a diploma confirming all qualifications necessary for this occupation.

gimnazjum

Institution offering 3 years of full-time general lower secondary education for pupils aged 12/13 to 15/16 who left szkoła podstawowa. At the end of the programme pupils take a compulsory external examination.

gmina

The lowest level of the three-tier administrative division of the territory of Poland (commune). ==

język mniejszości narodowej

National minority language. The following 9 national minorities have been defined in the legislation: Byelorussian, Czech, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, Ukrainian and Jewish. Their languages are considered to be national minority languages.

język mniejszości etnicznej

Ethnic minority language. The following 4 ethnic minorities have been defined in the legislation: Karaim, Lemko, Romany and Tatar. Their languages are considered to be ethnic minority languages.

język regionalny

Regional minority language. One community has been defined as using the regional language of Kashubians.

klub dziecięcy

Children’s club – an early childhood and education institution offering care to children aged 1 year and above, up to the start of pre-primary education (usually at the age of 3).

kolegium pracowników służb społecznych

Institution offering training for social workers. The Matura certificate is required for admission. The completion of these 3-year studies leads to obtaining of a diploma. A possibility of obtaining of the licencjat (Bachelor) title is also offered by the higher education institution exercising academic supervision over this institution.

kuratorium oświaty

Regional Educational Superintendent's Office or regional education authorities (REA).

kurator oświaty

Regional Educational Superintendent or head of regional education authorities (REA).

kwalifikacyjny kurs zawodowy

Vocational Qualification Course - a course which covers the content of core curriculum for training in particular vocations, particularly in relation to one qualification, and its completion leads to taking of an examination confirming one vocational qualification for a particular occupation.

kwestor

Chief accountant in a higher education institution responsible for financial management of the institution.

liceum ogólnokształcące

A 3-year upper secondary school offering general education to pupils aged 15/16 to 18/19 who left the lower secondary school. At the end of the programme pupils can take the final examination called egzamin maturalny (Matura).

nauczyciel akademicki

Academic teacher - general term for teachers in higher education institutions. His/her professional obligations include teaching and research as well as managerial duties in HEIs.

nauczyciel bibliotekarz

Teacher librarian employed in school settings in a library. Duties include both provision of library services to school staff and pupils and training of all pupils in the use of library resources (1-2 hours of teaching per class per year).

nauczyciel doradca zawodowy

Teacher – specialist in vocational guidance responsible for provision of vocational guidance in school and non-school settings.

nauczyciel dyplomowany

Chartered teacher is a fourth step in the professional advancement of teachers. The chartered teacher’s contract is a permanent one. Their nomination has to be confirmed by kuratorium.

nauczyciel doradca metodyczny

Teacher (appointed or chartered) employed in a school setting nominated by the school management body as a methodological adviser in his/her subject.

nauczyciel konsultant

Teacher – specialist on continuing teacher training and teaching methods in a given subject, provides support and advice to school heads and teachers, employed in an in-service teacher training institution.

nauczyciel kontraktowy

Contract teacher is a second step in the professional advancement of teachers. An employment contract is concluded for an indefinite period of time (unless the teaching organization requires fixed-term employment); later it is transformed into appointment once the requirements for appointment have been fulfilled. In order to be promoted to the next step (nauczyciel mianowany) the teacher has to complete a probation period and receive a positive assessment of his/her professional achievements, and pass an exam before of an examination board.

nauczyciel mianowany

Appointed teacher is a third step in the professional advancement of teachers. The appointed teacher’s contract is a permanent one. In order to be promoted to the next step (nauczyciel dyplomowany) the teacher has to complete a probation period and receive a positive assessment of his/her professional achievements.

nauczyciel pedagog

Teacher responsible for provision of pedagogical support in schools and counseling and support centres.

nauczyciel psycholog

Teacher responsible for provision of psychological support in schools and counseling and support centres.

nauczyciel stażysta

Trainee teacher is a first step in the professional advancement of teachers and this type of appointment is considered an induction period in Poland. The trainee teacher’s contract is limited in time and lasts one year. The induction period takes place under the supervision of a “mentor” (supervising teacher). In order to complete an induction period and be promoted to the next grade (nauczyciel kontraktowy), a trainee teacher should have his/her application for promotion approved by a so-called qualifying board.

nauczyciel wspomagający

Supporting teacher employed in special and integration school settings of all levels. Works with pupils/students with special educational needs.

niania

A nanny is a natural person employed on the basis of a written contract for the delivery of services concluded with parents of children aged 20 weeks and above.

obowiązek nauki

Part-time compulsory education (obligation to be in education) concerns pupils aged 15/16-18 and it may take place either in school settings (a student attends upper secondary school) or in non-school settings (e.g. a student follows vocational training offered by employers).

obowiązek szkolny

Full-time compulsory education (obligation to attend primary and lower secondary school) applies to pupils aged 6-15/16 years.

oddział przedszkolny

Institution based at the primary school offering 3 years of full-time pre-primary education for children aged 3-5. The admission is based on age.

opiekun dzienny

A day child carer or minder is a natural person employed by the commune (gmina). He/she provides care for children aged 20 weeks and above. The maximum number of children under the care of a child minder is normally 5.

opiekun stażu (mentor)

Supervising teacher, an experienced teacher (with an appointed or chartered grade) who is nominated by the school head in order to supervise the trainee teacher during his/her induction period as well as to support the contract teacher in his/her preparation for promotion to the next grade (appointed teacher).

ośrodek dokształcania i doskonalenia zawodowego (ODDZ)

Further and In-service Training Centre – a centre providing vocational training to adult learners offering an opportunity to gain and develop knowledge and skills in particular professions.

powiat

The intermediate level of the three-tier administrative division of the territory of Poland (district).

punkt przedszkolny

Pre-school centre - so called “other form of pre-primary education”, an institution offering pre-primary education to children aged 3 to 5. The admission is based on age. Classes in pre-school centres are offered throughout the school year, except for breaks established by the school managing body.

przedszkole

Institution offering 3 years of full-time pre-primary education for children aged 3-5. The admission is based on age. ==rada pedagogiczna==The teaching council is a collective school governing body which is established in every school with at least 3 teachers employed. The teaching council is concerned with the performance of the school's or institution's statutory tasks related to education and care. The teaching council is chaired by the head of school and it consists of all teachers employed in the school or institution.

rada rodziców

The parents’ council is a body representing all pupils’ parents in a given school. It is elected by direct vote of all parents present during the first school meeting of the year. Every class is represented by one parent. Establishment of the parents’ council is obligatory. The council issues opinions and advice to the school head and can collect its own funds.

rada szkoły

The school council is a collegial school body representing all teachers, pupils’ parents and pupils in a given school. Its establishment is not obligatory. The council actively participates in solving the school’s internal problems. It can collect its own funds.

rektor

Head of higher education institution.

samorząd uczniów

Pupils’ self-government is a representation of all pupils of a given school elected in a direct democratic vote. The pupils’ self-government represents all pupils in contacts with the school head, parents and education authorities. It issues opinions and should be involved in the decision making process at school. It receives support and advice from one of the teachers (elected by the pupils) who acts as its mentor.

sprawdzian szóstoklasisty

An external compulsory test (set by the Central Examination Board, administered and assessed by the Regional Examination Boards) taken by pupils at the end of the 6-year primary school. It is primarily designed to provide teachers and parents with information about pupils’ achievements.

studia niestacjonarne

Part-time programmes in higher education institutions. A form of study other than (different from) the full-study programme as indicated by the senate of a given HEI.

studia podyplomowe

Non-degree postgraduate programmes offered by higher education institutions to adult learners with a Bachelor degree at the minimum.

studia stacjonarne

Full-time programmes in higher education institutions. A form of study in which min. half of the study programme is implemented as class hours requiring direct participation (attendance) of academic teachers and students.

szkoła integracyjna

A school which provides education to both regular pupils and those with special educational needs.

szkoła podstawowa

Institution offering 6 years of full-time primary education for pupils aged 6/7 to 12/13. The admission is based on age. At the end of the programme pupils take a compulsory external test.

szkoła policealna

Institution offering advanced vocational and technical courses for adult students who hold an upper general secondary school leaving certificate.

szkoła specjalna

A school which provides education to pupils with special educational needs.

technikum

A 4-year upper secondary school offering general and technical education to pupils aged 15/16 to 19/20 who left the lower secondary school. At the end of the programme pupils can take the final Matura examination as well as exams confirming vocational qualifications.

uczelnia akademicka

University-type higher education institution in which at least one organisational unit is authorised to confer the academic degree of doctor. They are authorised to offer three cycles of degree programmes, including first-cycle studies (3 or 4 years), second-cycle (2 years) or uniform (5 or 6 years) and third-cycle studies (doctoral studies).

uczelnia zawodowa

Higher education institution providing first-cycle (3 or 4 years), second-cycle (2 years) or uniform (5 or 6 years) programmes which is not authorised to confer the academic degree of doctor.

województwo

The highest level of the three-tier administrative division of the territory of Poland (province/region).

zasadnicza szkoła zawodowa

Institution offering 3 years of upper secondary vocational education for pupils who left the lower secondary school. Students and graduates can take exam or exams confirming vocational qualifications for a particular trade or occupation.

zespół wychowania przedszkolnego

Pre-school unit - so called “other form of pre-primary education”, an institution offering pre-primary education to children aged 3 to 5. The admission is based on age. Classes in pre-school units take place on some of the weekdays.

żłobek

Crèche – early education and care institution offering care to children at least at the age of 20 weeks up to the age of entry to pre-primary education (usually at the age of 3).